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Table 3 Contributions of changes in mortality (M effect) and populations’ educational structure (P effect) to differences in life expectancy at age 30 (e30) for Italy (1991–2011), Denmark (1990–2010), and the USA (1990–2010), stratified by gender

From: The impact of increasing education levels on rising life expectancy: a decomposition analysis for Italy, Denmark, and the USA

  Italy Denmark USA
Years Percent Years Percent Years Percent
Men
 Total difference in e30 5.1 100.0 4.2 100.0 3.8 100.0
 M effect (mortality) 4.0 78.8 3.2 78.1 3.2 83.6
      Low education 2.9 57.9 1.4 34.6 0.3 8.6
      Medium education 0.8 15.9 1.2 28.3 1.9 48.4
      High education 0.3 5.0 0.6 15.2 1.0 26.6
 P effect (structure) 1.1 21.2 1.0 21.9 0.6 16.4
Women
 Total difference in e30 3.6 100.0 2.9 100.0 1.9 100.0
 M effect (mortality) 2.9 80.4 1.8 60.5 1.5 79.0
      Low education 2.4 67.7 0.8 26.4 − 0.2 − 10.0
      Medium education 0.3 8.9 0.7 23.1 1.2 62.5
      High education 0.2 3.8 0.3 11.0 0.5 26.5
 P effect (structure) 0.7 19.6 1.1 39.5 0.4 21.0
Both sexes
 Total difference in e30 4.4 100.0 3.6 100.0 2.8 100.0
 M effect (mortality) 3.5 80.1 2.7 75.6 2.3 80.9
      Low education 2.7 61.5 1.2 33.4 0.0 1.3
      Medium education 0.6 13.5 1.0 27.1 1.5 51.5
      High education 0.2 5.1 0.5 15.1 0.8 28.1
 P effect (structure) 0.9 19.9 0.9 24.4 0.5 19.1
  1. Source: authors’ own calculations; the data sources for the three populations can be found in the “Data” section
  2. Note: Results in percent are derived from exact changes (in years) and may not correspond to percentages of rounded values; decimals may be adjusted to add up to total values