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Journal of Population Sciences

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Table 2 Independent and simultaneous hazard models for the first and the second childbirth. Parameter estimates, significance values and standard errors

From: The nexus between education and fertility in six European countries

  First child Second child
  Independent Simultaneous Indep. Simult.
  β sig. se β sig. se β sig. se β sig. se
Education (ref. Medium)
 Low 0.21 *** (0.015) 0.44 *** (0.023) 0.12 *** (0.021) 0.26 *** (0.027)
 High − 0.13 *** (0.021) − 0.40 *** (0.030) 0.08 *** (0.025) − 0.06 * (0.033)
Currently student (ref. No)
 Yes − 1.02 *** (0.029) − 0.97 *** (0.032) − 0.21 *** (0.045) − 0.42 *** (0.055)
Currently working (ref. No)            
 Yes − 0.27 *** (0.016) − 0.40 *** (0.020) − 0.25 *** (0.021) − 0.35 *** (0.025)
Birth cohort (ref. 1960–69)
 1940–49 0.05 ** (0.018) 0.08 *** (0.027) − 0.01   (0.023) 0.04   (0.031)
 1950–59 0.08 *** (0.017) 0.15 *** (0.025) − 0.03   (0.022) 0.01   (0.029)
 1970–79 − 0.17 *** (0.019) − 0.24 *** (0.027) − 0.07 *** (0.025) − 0.20 *** (0.033)
Country (ref. Italy)
 Bulgaria 1.08 *** (0.020) 1.70 *** (0.032) 0.06 ** (0.030) 0.42 *** (0.040)
 Czech Rep. 0.80 *** (0.030) 1.26 *** (0.044) 0.20 *** (0.042) 0.50 *** (0.055)
 France 0.37 *** (0.025) 0.60 *** (0.034) 0.41 *** (0.030) 0.64 *** (0.040)
 Germany 0.47 *** (0.033) 0.66 *** (0.046) 0.27 *** (0.038) 0.49 *** (0.051)
 Poland 0.74 *** (0.019) 1.08 *** (0.029) 0.32 *** (0.024) 0.67 *** (0.034)
Mother’s age at first child birth (ref. 25–29)
 15–24 years        0.26 *** (0.022) − 0.22 *** (0.034)
 30–34 years        − 0.31 *** (0.032) − 0.07 * (0.039)
 35+ years        − 1.22 *** (0.081) − 0.85 *** (0.085)
Standard deviation of residual in the fertility equations 0.91*** (0.0198)
 Number of cases 24909 20910
  1. Source: GGS 2nd wave and Istat FSS (2009)
  2. Note: *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01