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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of under-five mortality in Ethiopia

From: Machine learning approach for predicting under-five mortality determinants in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

Variables Odds ratio Lower 95 % CI Upper 95% CI p value
(Intercept) 0.033 0.006 0.193 0.0001
Mothers age first birth (Ref: < 20)     
 > 20 0.600 0.353 1.018 0.059
Sex (Ref: female)     
Male 2.018 1.398 2.913 0.0001
Birth order (Ref: 1st/2nd)     
 3rd or higher 2.129 1.131 4.008 0.020
Birth interval (Ref: < 2)     
 2–4 years 0.527 0.309 0.898 0.019
 > 4 years 0.385 0.190 0.779 0.008
Time to water source 1.000 0.999 1.000 0.244
Water source (Ref: unimproved)     
 Improved 0.585 0.348 0.985 0.044
Toilet facility (Ref: improved)     
 Unimproved 1.713 0.744 3.943 0.206
Births in last 5 years 1.163 0.744 1.816 0.508
Residence (Ref: rural)     
 Urban 0.527 0.181 1.541 0.243
Mother’s education (Ref: no education)     
 Primary 0.928 0.513 1.680 0.805
 Secondary/higher 1.856 0.480 7.178 0.370
Wealth index (Ref: low)     
 Middle 1.342 0.698 2.581 0.378
 High 1.694 0.937 3.064 0.082
Contraceptive use (Ref: using)     
 Not using 1.174 0.735 1.876 0.502
Region     
 Addis Ababa 1.124 0.485 2.605 0.786
 Afar 0.573 0.228 1.435 0.235
 Amhara 0.885 0.354 2.211 0.794
 Ben-Gumuz 1.494 0.587 3.803 0.400
 Dire Dawa 1.021 0.408 2.554 0.965
 Gambella 0.623 0.243 1.597 0.325
 Harari 1.175 0.495 2.790 0.715
 SNNP 1.221 0.376 3.960 0.740
 Somali 1.504 0.287 7.881 0.629
 Tigray 1.733 0.519 5.787 0.372
Mother’s BMI (Ref: normal)     
 Overweight 0.527 0.170 1.640 0.269
 Underweight 1.402 0.868 2.264 0.168
Place of delivery (Ref: fac with CS delivery)     
 Facility without CS delivery 2.850 1.182 6.869 0.020
 Home 1.185 0.617 2.275 0.610
Antenatal visits (Ref: no visit)     
 1–4 visits 0.616 0.381 0.995 0.048
 5+ visits 0.437 0.208 0.917 0.029
Postnatal care (Ref: no)     
 Yes 0.264 0.080 0.872 0.029
Child wanted (Ref: wanted then)     
 Wanted later 0.768 0.369 1.599 0.482
 Not at all 1.407 0.749 2.642 0.289
Breastfeeding (Ref: > an hour of birth)     
 Within 1 h of birth 0.242 0.147 0.398 0.0001
vHousehold size 0.498 0.345 0.719 0.0001
  1. NB significant variables are in bold