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Table 2 Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) for association between household characteristics and handwashing capacity in selected African countries

From: Risk assessment for COVID-19 transmission at household level in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from DHS

Sub-region/country Isolation capacity Presence of older persons Wealth indexa Education: Household headb Residence
Average Rich Primary Secondary+ Urban vs. rural
Western Africa
 Benin 1.28 (1.13–1.45) 1.09 (0.94–1.28) 1.31 (1.06–1.62) 2.41 (1.87–3.11) 1.27 (1.07–1.50) 2.20 (1.87–2.59) 1.20 (0.93–1.53)
 Guinea 1.07 (0.94–1.22) 0.81 (0.71–0.93) 1.68 (1.40–2.03) 2.86 (2.12–3.83) 1.09 (0.88–1.34) 1.49 (1.27–1.75) 1.48 (1.04–2.10)
 Mali 1.23 (1.09–1.39) 1.04 (0.90–1.20) 1.76 (1.45–2.14) 6.59 (5.05–8.60) 1.15 (0.96–1.38) 1.82 (1.56–2.12) 1.07 (0.75–1.52)
 Nigeria 1.05 (0.99–1.13) 1.12 (1.03–1.22) 1.93 (1.68–2.21) 4.80 (4.06–5.66) 1.26 (1.13–1.41) 1.75 (1.57–1.94) 2.01 (1.49–2.71)
 Senegal 1.22 (1.06–1.41) 1.17 (1.01–1.36) 1.43 (1.10–1.86) 3.87 (2.80–5.35) 1.51 (1.25–1.82) 2.81 (2.32–3.40) 1.57 (1.18–2.09)
Middle Africa
 Angola 1.37 (1.26–1.49) 0.94 (0.84–1.07) 1.72 (1.47–2.02) 3.60 (2.90–4.47) 1.22 (1.09–1.39) 1.38 (1.21–1.68) 1.35 (1.09–1.68)
 Chad 1.22 (1.03–1.45) 0.86 (0.68–1.09) 1.77 (1.31–2.40) 3.08 (2.21–4.30) 1.45 (1.13–1.86) 2.41 (1.92–3.04) 2.06 (1.43–2.98)
Eastern Africa
 Burundi 1.08 (0.93–1.25) 1.12 (0.91–1.37) 1.28 (1.00–1.63) 2.85 (2.17–3.73) 1.27 (1.05–1.52) 2.83 (2.27–3.53) 2.11 (1.47–3.03)
 Ethiopia 1.19 (1.07–1.34) 1.10 (0.96–1.27) 1.96 (1.56–2.47) 3.35 (2.54–4.43) 1.44 (1.24–1.67) 2.45 (2.09–2.89) 2.29 (1.69–3.10)
 Tanzania 0.96 (0.89–1.05) 0.90 (0.81–0.99) 1.53 (1.37–1.71) 2.75 (2.36–3.20) 1.17 (1.05–1.31) 1.71 (1.47–1.99) 1.21 (1.05–1.39)
 Uganda 1.09 (1.00–1.17) 1.01 (0.91–1.13) 1.33 (1.18–1.51) 2.19 (1.90–2.52) 1.20 (1.07–1.36) 1.57 (1.37–1.79) 1.42 (1.17–1.73)
 Rwanda 1.37 (1.14–1.67) 1.12 (0.87–1.43) 1.52 (1.15–2.01) 3.63 (2.61–5.07) 1.13 (0.88–1.45) 2.65 (1.94–3.61) 2.20 (1.19–4.07)
Southern Africa
 Malawi 1.23 (1.13–1.34) 0.93 (0.83–1.04) 1.44 (1.27–1.63) 2.60 (2.26–2.99) 1.20 (1.04–1.39) 1.86 (1.58–2.18) 1.06 (0.87–1.29)
 South Africa 1.27 (1.13–1.43) 1.44 (1.28–1.62) 1.68 (1.46–1.94) 7.67 (6.42–9.17) 1.27 (1.07–1.50) 1.66 (1.42–1.96) 1.53 (1.24–1.87)
 Zambia 1.10 (0.99–1.22) 1.19 (1.05–1.36) 1.27 (1.07–1.50) 2.82 (2.23–3.56) 1.33 (1.10–1.62) 1.75 (1.43–2.14) 1.33 (1.03–1.70)
 Zimbabwe 1.38 (1.26–1.51) 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 1.27 (1.12–1.45) 3.02 (2.44–3.73) 1.18 (0.98–1.42) 1.50 (1.23–1.82) 1.16 (0.93–1.44)
  1. aReference category was “poor”
  2. bReference category-none