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Table 6 Difference in means for the employed variables (t test)—state and trait anxiety

From: Effects of COVID-19 lockdown on university students’ anxiety disorder in Italy

  Obs State Trait
Mean Diff Std. Err p value Mean Diff Std. Err p value
Female 2868 54.88 − 6.33 0.377 *** 48.72 − 4.05 0.348 ***
Male 1511 48.55     44.68    
Age 18–21 1851 52.39 0.53 0.374   47.37 − 0.07 0.340  
Age > 22 2528 52.92     47.29    
Messina 1461 54.11 − 2.12 0.391 *** 48.11 − 1.18 0.355 **
Other 2918 51.99     46.93    
Marche 1690 51.32 2.24 0.379 *** 46.54 1.29 0.344 ***
Other 2689 53.56     47.82    
Udine 1228 52.91 − 0.29 0.412   47.48 − 0.21 0.374  
Other 3151 52.61     47.27    
Economics and Law 773 54.52 − 2.22 0.484 *** 47.41 − 0.10 0.441  
Other 3606 52.30     47.31    
Medicine 817 51.65 1.28 0.474 ** 46.72 0.75 0.431  
Other 3562 52.93     47.47    
Sciences 1953 51.62 1.94 0.371 *** 46.98 0.62 0.338  
Other 2426 53.56     47.60    
Humanities and Education 836 54.54 − 2.28 0.469 *** 48.65 − 1.63 0.426 ***
Other 3543 52.26     47.01    
Bachelor’s Degree 2789 52.94 − 0.67 0.385   47.80 − 1.29 0.348 ***
Other 1590 52.27     46.50    
Changed home 996 54.68 − 2.57 0.440 *** 47.81 − 0.62 0.401  
Did not change home 3383 52.11     47.18    
Scholarship 1645 53.77 − 1.72 0.381 *** 48.00 − 1.08 0.346 **
No scholarship 2734 52.05     46.92    
Outdoor space: garden or terrace 3428 52.04 3.00 0.447 *** 46.88 2.04 0.406 ***
No outdoor space 951 55.05     48.92    
Distance learning 3544 52.41 1.51 0.470 ** 46.94 2.01 0.426 ***
No distance learning 835 53.92     48.96    
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001