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Table 3 Covariates sample distributions by panel

From: Dynamics of persistent poverty in Italy at the beginning of the crisis

  Panel
  2004–2007 2005–2008 2006–2009 2007–2010 Total
  n % n % n % n % n %
Region           
 North 4694 44.85 4219 41.57 4200 42.76 4220 42.61 17,333 42.97
 Centre 2325 22.21 2534 24.97 2224 22.64 2185 22.06 9268 22.98
 South 3447 32.94 3395 33.45 3398 34.60 3498 35.32 13,738 34.06
Sex           
 Male 7768 74.22 7529 74.19 7110 72.39 7221 72.92 29,628 73.45
 Female 2698 25.78 2619 25.81 2712 27.61 2682 27.08 10,711 26.55
Source of income           
 Dep. empl. 5371 51.32 5168 50.93 4922 50.11 5334 53.86 20,795 51.55
 Self-empl. 2079 19.86 2040 20.10 1900 19.34 1877 18.95 7896 19.57
 Old-age pensions 2664 25.45 2601 25.63 2621 26.68 2375 23.98 10,261 25.44
 Other sources 352 3.36 339 3.34 379 3.86 317 3.20 1387 3.44
Age           
 <35 1832 17.50 1661 16.37 1448 14.74 1496 15.11 6437 15.96
 35–44 2697 25.77 2749 27.09 2618 26.65 2567 25.92 10,631 26.35
 45–54 2410 23.03 2262 22.29 2267 23.08 2409 24.33 9348 23.17
 55–64 1693 16.18 1557 15.34 1531 15.59 1560 15.75 6341 15.72
 65+ 1834 17.52 1919 18.91 1958 19.93 1871 18.89 7582 18.80
Educational level           
 Up to lower secondary 5793 55.35 5408 53.29 5330 54.27 5236 52.87 21,767 53.96
 Secondary 3545 33.87 3643 35.90 3373 34.34 3458 34.92 14,019 34.75
 University or higher 1128 10.78 1097 10.81 1119 11.39 1209 12.21 4553 11.29
Partner’s educational level           
 No partner 2991 28.58 2738 26.98 2754 28.04 2666 26.92 11,149 27.64
 Up to lower secondary 4460 42.61 4158 40.97 4036 41.09 4001 40.40 16,655 41.29
 Secondary 2122 20.28 2307 22.73 2054 20.91 2328 23.51 8811 21.84
 University or higher 893 8.53 945 9.31 978 9.96 908 9.17 3724 9.23
Change in no. of earners           
 No change 6020 57.52 5694 56.11 5666 57.69 5649 57.04 23,029 57.09
 Gained only 1983 18.95 1965 19.36 1872 19.06 1085 10.96 6905 17.12
 Lost only 1271 12.14 1057 10.42 916 9.33 1816 18.34 5060 12.54
 Gained and lost 1192 11.39 1432 14.11 1368 13.93 1353 13.66 5345 13.25
Change in household size           
 No 8245 78.78 7969 78.53 8046 81.92 7972 80.50 32,232 79.90
 Yes 2221 21.22 2179 21.47 1776 18.08 1931 19.50 8107 20.10
New birth           
 No 10,024 95.78 9742 96.00 9462 96.33 9572 96.66 38,800 96.18
 Yes 442 4.22 406 4.00 360 3.67 331 3.34 1539 3.82
New household           
 No 10,214 97.59 9906 97.62 9641 98.16 9708 98.03 39,469 97.84
 Yes 252 2.41 242 2.38 181 1.84 195 1.97 870 2.16
Change in main earner           
 No 7451 71.19 7211 71.06 7072 72.00 6943 70.11 28,677 71.09
 Yes 3015 28.81 2937 28.94 2750 28.00 2960 29.89 11,662 28.91
Total 10,466 100.00 10,148 100.00 9822 100.00 9903 100.00 40,339 100.00
  1. Source: authors’ calculation on EU-SILC longitudinal UDB