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Table 5 Logistic regression estimates of persistent at risk of poverty individuals and average marginal effects

From: Dynamics of persistent poverty in Italy at the beginning of the crisis

  Coef. Robust std. err. Sign. dy/dx Unconditional std. err. Sign.
Sex (ref = Male)       
 Female 0.4797 0.0889 *** 0.0328 0.0052 ***
Source of Income (ref = dependent employment)      
 Self-employment 0.5252 0.0698 *** 0.0335 0.0053 ***
 Old-age pensions 0.5015 0.1012 *** 0.0421 0.0080 ***
 Other income sources 1.2550 0.1285 *** 0.0987 0.0115 ***
Year (ref = 2004–2007)       
 2005–2008 −0.3810 0.1163 ** −0.0201 0.0052 ***
 2006–2009 −0.3391 0.1139 ** −0.0139 0.0051 **
 2007–2010 −0.4215 0.1193 *** −0.0258 0.0052 ***
Region (ref = North)       
 Centre 0.4368 0.1230 *** 0.0320 0.0044 ***
 South 1.3135 0.0954 *** 0.1286 0.0043 ***
Age (ref = <35 years old)       
 35–44 −0.6359 0.0773 *** −0.0521 0.0066 ***
 45–54 −0.3151 0.0798 *** −0.0277 0.0072 ***
 55–64 −0.3214 0.1036 ** −0.0282 0.0091 **
 65+ −0.0711 0.1531   −0.0066 0.0141  
Educational level (ref = up to lower secondary)      
 Secondary −0.9325 0.0577 *** −0.0764 0.0044 ***
 University degree or higher −2.2765 0.1588 *** −0.1323 0.0049 ***
Partner’s educational level (ref = no partner)       
 Up to lower secondary −0.0909 0.0682   −0.0082 0.0062  
 Secondary −0.6197 0.0886 *** −0.0492 0.0069 ***
 University degree or higher −1.2214 0.1439 *** −0.0835 0.0081 ***
Household composition       
 No. of earners −1.7748 0.1106 *** −0.1475 0.0092 ***
 No. of earners2 0.1691 0.0250 *** 0.0141 0.0021 ***
 No. of children 0.6897 0.0703 * 0.0573 0.0058 ***
 No. of children2 −0.0071 0.0191   −0.0006 0.0016  
 No. of elder 0.0125 0.1682   0.0010 0.0140  
 No. of elder2 0.1132 0.0644   0.0094 0.0054  
Change in no. of earners       
 Gained only −0.2324 0.0616 *** −0.0166 0.0043 ***
 Lost only 1.2421 0.0833 *** 0.1227 0.0094 ***
 Gained and lost 0.8210 0.0679 *** 0.0747 0.0068 ***
Other household changes       
 Change in household size (ref = no) −0.3946 0.0803 *** −0.0310 0.0059 ***
 New birth (ref = no) 0.4166 0.1359 ** 0.0377 0.0133 **
 New household (ref = no) −0.2356 0.1774   −0.0186 0.0132  
 Change in main earner (ref = no) 0.2356 0.0592 *** 0.0201 0.0052 ***
Sex and source of income       
 Female, self-employment −0.3494 0.1485 *    
 Female, old-age pensions 0.0257 0.1168     
 Female, other income sources −0.6693 0.2024 **    
Year and region       
 2005–2008, Centre −0.1307 0.1819     
 2006–2009, Centre 0.2806 0.1421 *    
 2007–2010, Centre 0.1141 0.1800     
 2005–2008, South 0.2808 0.1384 *    
 2006–2009, South 0.2463 0.1835     
 2007–2010, South 0.1348 0.1446     
 Constant −0.5364 0.1490 ***    
 Nr. of observations 40,339      
 Pseudo R 2 0.293      
 Log pseudolikelihood −11,018.5      
  1. Source: authors’ calculation on EU-SILC longitudinal UDB
  2. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05