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Table 1 Exposure variables used in spatial modeling the infant mortality in nine high-focus states in India, AHS (2010–2011) and DLHS-3 (2007–2008)

From: Spatial clustering and risk factors of infant mortality: district-level assessment of high-focus states in India

Variables Description/data source
Dependent  
 IMR Total infant deaths aged below 1 year per 1000 live births (infant deaths/total live births * 1000) (AHS 2010)
Independent  
 ARI The information on children suffering from ARI in respect of all the living children [last two outcomes of pregnancy(s) resulting in live births during the reference period, i.e., 2007–2009] during 15 days preceding the date the survey has been collected (AHS 2010)
 Diarrhea The information on children suffering from diarrhea in respect of all the living children [last two outcomes of pregnancy(s) resulting in live births during the reference period, i.e., 2007–2009] during 15 days preceding the date the survey has been collected. (AHS 2010)
 Female work participation Total female workers irrespective of type of work/total female population * 100 (Census 2011)
 Proportion of urban population Total of urban population/total population * 100 (Census 2011)
Bottom wealth quintile The wealth index is computed using household assets in AHS and used in this study. Lowest quintile is considered in the analysis as a proxy of low socioeconomic status (AHS 2010).
 Drainage facility Includes both open and closed drainage available in a household (Census 2011)
 Drinking water from treated water Includes drinking water from a treated/untreated source, covered well, and tube well/borehole/hand pump at the household level (Census 2011)
 Improved toilet facilities Includes flush toilet, piped to a sewer system or a septic tank, and a pit with slab/ventilated improved pit
 Average Household Size Number of members in a household (AHS 2010)
 Percentage of household with kachha house/electricity Percentage of household with kachha house and electricity (Census 2011)
 Drinking water from a treated source This is considered as the availability of drinking water from a treated source in a household. (Census 2011)
 Percentage of SC/ST (Percentage of SC/total population) * 100 (Census 2011)
 Percentage of literate women Defined using percentage of literate women in district (Census 2011)
 Percentage of safe delivery Based on proportion of women’s reporting safe delivery (AHS, 2-11)
 Percentage of women with more than 3 ANC Based on proportion of women’s reporting more than 3 ANC (DLHS-3)
 Percentage of children who received care within 24 h of birth (PNC) Based on proportion of women’s receiving care within 24 h of birth (DLHS-3)
 Percentage of women availed JSY Based on proportion of women’s receiving care within 24 h of birth (DLHS-3)
 Proportion of PHC functional 24 h in districts Calculated based on facility information whether PHC functional 24 h. (DLHS-3)
 Distance to district hospital Based on facility information distance to district hospital (DLHS-3)
 Percentage of PHC with labor room available in district Information obtained from facility survey percentage of PHC having labor room (DLHS-3)
 Average population covered by PHC Calculated based on facility information at PHC level (DLHS-3)