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Table 1 Multinomial regression models predicting the exclusion from home ownership (tenants versus homeowners)

From: Home bitter home? Gender, living arrangements, and the exclusion from homeownership among older Europeans

Variable Categories Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Gender Man (ref.)     
Woman 0.167*** 0.192*** 0.105* −0.002
Country Italy (ref.)     
Austria   1.385*** 1.953*** 1.908***
Germany   1.237*** 1.708*** 1.728***
Sweden   0.845*** 1.376*** 1.335***
Netherlands   0.868*** 1.309*** 1.301***
Spain   −1.078*** −1.180*** −1.149***
France   0.290*** 0.632*** 0.614***
Denmark   0.531*** 1.233*** 1.208***
Switzerland   1.685*** 2.417*** 2.362***
Belgium   0.274*** 0.747*** 0.734***
Czech Republic   0.347*** 0.503*** 0.539***
Poland   −0.166*** −0.180*** −0.156***
Hungary   −1.373*** −1.415*** −1.451***
Portugal   0.081*** −0.042 0.076
Slovenia   −0.998*** −0.769*** −0.867***
Estonia   −1.458*** −1.455*** −1.557***
Area of residence Urban (ref.)     
Rural   −1.137*** −1.261*** −1.219***
Age group 50–59 (ref.)     
60–69    −0.211** −0.197**
70+    −0.297*** −0.385***
Education Primary (ref.)     
Secondary    −0.400*** −0.379***
Tertiary    −0.813*** −0.799***
Self-rated health Poor (ref.)     
Fair    −0.169*** −0.142***
Good    −0.408*** −0.355***
Very good    −0.706*** −0.650***
Excellent    −0.899*** −0.832***
Income     −1.072*** −1.009***
Household composition Couple alone (ref.)     
Ego alone     1.005***
With family/with others     0.313***
Constant   −1.480*** −1.672*** 0.738* 0.144
Number   54,576 54,576 54,576 54,576
BIC   77,588 70,230 67,679 66,408
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001