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Table 2 Multinomial regression models predicting the exclusion from home ownership (rent-free versus homeowners)

From: Home bitter home? Gender, living arrangements, and the exclusion from homeownership among older Europeans

Variable Categories Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Gender Man (ref.)     
Woman 0.291*** 0.288*** 0.165* 0.090
Country Italy (ref.)     
Austria   0.853*** 1.238*** 1.295***
Germany   −0.051 0.257** 0.356***
Sweden   1.559*** 1.922*** 2.003***
Netherlands   −1.585*** −1.239*** −1.157***
  Spain   −1.238*** −1.292*** −1.279***
  France   −0.798*** −0.542*** −0.474***
  Denmark   −0.04 0.448*** 0.532***
  Switzerland   −0.404*** 0.120 0.179
  Belgium   −0.555*** −0.211** −0.143**
  Czech Republic   1.289*** 1.471*** 1.551***
  Poland   0.907*** 0.925*** 0.932***
  Hungary   0.201*** 0.209*** 0.205**
  Portugal   0.105*** 0.014 0.095**
  Slovenia   0.135** 0.302*** 0.278***
  Estonia   0.400*** 0.404*** 0.396***
Area of residence Urban (ref.)     
Rural   0.320 0.199 0.196
Age group 50–59 (ref.)     
60–69    0.185 0.252
70+    0.669*** 0.702***
Education Primary (ref.)     
Secondary    −0.237 −0.226
Tertiary    −0.440*** −0.429***
Self-rated health Poor (ref.)     
Fair    −0.109*** −0.085***
Good    −0.201* −0.182
Very good    −0.592*** −0.573***
Excellent    −0.559** −0.534*
Income     −0.748*** −0.718***
Household composition Couple alone (ref.)     
Ego alone     0.721***
With family/with others     0.526***
Constant   −2.581*** −2.781*** −1.594*** −2.217***
Number   54,576 54,576 54,576 54,576
BIC   77,588 70,230 67,679 66,408
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001