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Table 4 Aggregate correspondence test results (second-generation vs Italian applicants) by education level and contacts with customers

From: Immigrants and Italian labor market: statistical or taste-based discrimination?

  Jobs No one invited At least one invited Equal treatment Discrimination against Net discrimination Relative callback rate χ 2
test
    1 2 Second-generation
3
Italians
4
3 − 4 \( \frac{3-4}{1} \) \( \frac{\left[\left(2+3\right)/1\right]\ }{\left[\left(2+4\right)/1\right]} \)  
Nationality No. No. No. No. No. No. No. %   p
Callback: graduate
 Albanian 110 40 70 36 29 5 24 34.29 1.59 ***
 Chinese 110 40 70 29 36 5 31 44.29 1.91 ***
 German 110 38 72 48 17 7 10 13.89 1.18 ***
 Moroccan 110 41 69 28 37 4 33 47.83 2.03 ***
 Romanian 110 42 68 38 27 3 24 35.29 1.59 ***
Callback: high school
 Albanian 196 83 113 58 44 11 33 29.2 1.48 ***
 Chinese 196 80 116 49 53 14 39 33.62 1.62 ***
 German 196 83 113 69 33 11 22 19.47 1.28 ***
 Moroccan 196 81 115 46 56 13 43 37.39 1.73 ***
 Romanian 196 83 113 55 47 11 36 31.86 1.55 ***
Callback: front office
 Albanian 200 83 117 54 52 11 41 35.04 1.63 ***
 Chinese 200 81 119 37 69 13 56 47.06 2.12 ***
 German 200 79 121 64 42 15 27 22.31 1.34 ***
 Moroccan 200 82 118 41 65 12 53 44.92 2.00 ***
 Romanian 200 84 116 53 53 10 43 37.07 1.68 ***
  1. The first column provides the ethnic origin of the applicant, the second one shows the number of applications sent, the third one shows the cases in which no individuals were invited for an interview, column four shows the cases in which at least one applicant was invited, column five shows the cases in which both were invited, column six shows the cases in which only the Italian candidates were invited, and the seventh one shows the cases in which only the second-generation candidates were invited. In the following two columns, we calculated the net discrimination against second-generation immigrants, and, finally, in the last columns, we reported the p value related to the chi-squared test. Chi-squared tests were conducted on the callback rates, and the results are indicated as *** significant at the 0.001 level. A positive sign indicates discrimination against the minority applicant (second-generation candidates). The null hypothesis is that discrimination against the second generation is equal to discrimination against Italians, therefore both individuals are treated unfavorably equally often
  2. Net discrimination = (discrimination against second-generation—discrimination against Italians)/(at least one invited); Relative callback rate = success of majority/success of minority = [(2 + 3)/1]/[(2 + 4)/1]