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Table 3 Coefficient estimates (β) and their standard errors (s.e.), odds ratios (OR), and their 95% confidence interval of the binary logistic multilevel model for the life satisfaction (probability of being satisfied)

From: Social relations and life satisfaction: the role of friends

  Est. s.e. OR 95% CI
Intercept 6.315 0.268***    
 Variance 2.765 0.179***    
Gender (ref. male)
 Female − 0.045 0.045 0.956 0.860 1.044
Age − 1.001 0.183*** 0.367 0.257 0.526
Age (squared) 0.949 0.177*** 2.584 1.829 3.650
Education (ref. high)
 Low 0.306 0.075*** 1.357 1.171 1.574
 Medium 0.182 0.051*** 1.200 1.087 1.325
Employment status (ref. employed and very satisfied)
 Other − 1.754 0.106*** 0.173 0.141 0.213
 Unemployed − 0.912 0.098*** 0.402 0.332 0.486
 Not Satisfied − 1.610 0.105*** 0.200 0.163 0.246
 Quite satisfied − 0.473 0.091*** 0.623 0.522 0.745
Economic resources (ref. good or very good)
 Poor or insufficient − 0.434 0.056*** 0.648 0.581 0.724
Family’s structure (ref. couples with children)
 Parents in single-parent families − 0.670 0.102*** 0.512 0.419 0.625
 Couples without children − 0.175 0.077** 0.840 0.723 0.976
 Child − 0.808 0.082*** 0.446 0.380 0.523
 Others − 0.634 0.074*** 0.530 0.459 0.613
Perception of health (ref. good)
 Fair − 0.589 0.162*** 0.555 0.404 0.761
 Poor − 0.505 0.063*** 0.604 0.534 0.682
Presence of limitations (ref. no)
 Severe limitations − 0.236 0.144 0.790 0.596 1.047
 Only mild limitations 0.097 0.073 1.102 0.955 1.272
Health satisfaction (ref. very satisfied)
 Not satisfied − 0.787 0.104*** 0.455 0.371 0.558
 Quite satisfied − 0.330 0.065*** 0.719 0.632 0.817
Attendance at religious services (ref. At least one a week)
 Never − 0.353 0.072*** 0.703 0.611 0.808
 Sometimes − 0.036 0.058 0.964 0.861 1.079
Social integration (ref. yes)
 No − 0.289 0.055*** 0.749 0.673 0.834
Sport (ref. regularly)
 Never − 0.291 0.062*** 0.747 0.662 0.844
 At least one per week − 0.001 0.065 0.999 0.880 1.134
Trust in other people (ref. yes)
 No − 0.462 0.059*** 0.630 0.562 0.707
View of personal situation in the future (ref. optimistic)
 Indifferent − 0.549 0.056*** 0.578 0.518 0.645
 Pessimistic − 1.150 0.070*** 0.317 0.276 0.364
Leisure time satisfaction (ref. very satisfied)
 Not satisfied − 0.531 0.084*** 0.588 0.499 0.694
 Quite satisfied − 0.115 0.079 0.891 0.763 1.041
Area of residence (ref. north-west)
 South − 0.204 0.072*** 0.815 0.709 0.938
 Center − 0.273 0.082*** 0.761 0.648 0.894
 North-east − 0.154 0.080** 0.857 0.733 1.004
Type of municipality (ref. metropolitan area)
 > 50,000 − 0.037 0.099 0.963 0.793 1.170
 Town with 10,000–50,000 0.044 0.091 1.045 0.874 1.249
 Town with 2000–10,000 0.267 0.093*** 1.305 1.090 1.564
 Town with less than 2000 inhabitants 0.238 0.1184** 1.268 1.006 1.600
 Suburbs − 0.155 0.116 0.856 0.683 1.074
Economic resources satisfaction (ref. very satisfied)
 Not satisfied − 1.518 0.206*** 0.219 0.146 0.328
 Quite satisfied − 0.357 0.205 0.700 0.468 1.046
Family relationships satisfaction
 Not satisfied − 1.526 0.105*** 0.217 0.177 0.267
 Quite satisfaction − 0.681 0.061*** 0.506 0.450 0.570
Frequency of meeting friends (ref. more than once a week)
 Only some times a year or without friends − 0.306 0.083*** 0.737 0.626 0.866
 Once a week or several times a month − 0.087 0.051* 0.916 0.829 1.013
Friendship relationships satisfaction (ref. very satisfied)
 Quite satisfied − 0.519 0.094*** 0.595 0.495 0.716
 Not satisfied − 0.301 0.068*** 0.740 0.648 0.846
  1. Significant parameter at *p < .1, **p < .05, ***p < .01