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Table 1 Contributions (in years) of changes in the modal age at dying (M) and of mortality expansion/compression at young, adult, and old ages in the change in life expectancy at birth (e0) between 1980 and 2014*, by country and sex

From: The timing of the transition from mortality compression to mortality delay in Europe, Japan and the United States

  Observed Observed Observed Effect Effect compression/expansion Effect
e0 1980 e0 2014 Change e0 Change M   Before M After M Residual
   1980–2014   Total Young Adult Old age  
Men
 Japan 73.38 80.52 7.14 6.70 0.47 1.09 − 0.47 − 0.15 − 0.03
 USA 69.99 76.66 6.67 8.17 − 1.23 1.90 − 2.58 − 0.56 − 0.26
 Denmark 71.17 78.55 7.38 7.75 − 0.22 1.98 − 1.48 − 0.72 − 0.15
 Finland 69.23 78.12 8.89 9.48 − 0.43 1.07 − 0.79 − 0.71 − 0.17
 Ireland 69.93 79.16 9.23 10.20 − 0.73 1.39 − 1.46 − 0.66 − 0.24
 Norway 72.34 80.02 7.68 7.74 − 0.08 1.82 − 1.12 − 0.78 0.02
 Sweden 72.78 80.35 7.57 6.60 1.05 0.84 0.63 − 0.43 − 0.08
 UK 70.51 79.01 8.49 10.13 − 1.52 1.65 − 2.50 − 0.67 − 0.11
 Austria 68.97 78.92 9.95 8.23 1.91 2.62 − 0.39 − 0.33 − 0.20
 Belgium 69.88 78.57 8.70 8.97 − 0.11 2.16 − 1.71 − 0.56 − 0.17
 The Netherlands 72.44 79.88 7.44 8.41 − 0.99 1.67 − 1.77 − 0.89 0.02
 Germany, West 69.87 78.67 8.80 8.08 0.97 2.30 − 0.94 − 0.40 − 0.25
 France 70.16 79.27 9.11 8.94 0.61 1.92 − 0.85 − 0.46 − 0.43
 Switzerland 72.23 80.93 8.70 9.05 − 0.25 2.28 − 1.86 − 0.68 − 0.10
 Italy 70.67 79.72 9.05 8.08 1.09 1.95 − 0.30 − 0.56 − 0.12
 Portugal 68.11 77.93 9.82 7.36 2.91 4.09 − 0.82 − 0.37 − 0.44
 Spain 72.39 80.10 7.71 6.64 1.34 1.90 − 0.27 − 0.28 − 0.28
 Bulgaria 68.44 70.31 1.87 − 1.26 3.26 1.70 1.00 0.56 − 0.13
 Czech Republic 66.81 75.72 8.91 6.94 2.03 1.89 0.18 − 0.04 − 0.07
 Germany, East 68.71 77.42 8.71 8.20 0.92 2.43 − 1.29 − 0.22 − 0.41
 Hungary 65.52 72.26 6.74 0.04 6.82 2.04 3.42 1.37 − 0.12
 Poland 65.76 73.66 7.90 1.41 6.51 2.29 3.22 1.00 − 0.01
 Slovakia 66.71 73.25 6.54 1.69 4.80 1.21 2.94 0.64 0.05
 Lithuania 65.58 68.52 2.94 − 4.99 8.24 2.05 4.58 1.61 − 0.31
 Latvia 63.74 69.25 5.52 − 1.78 7.55 3.51 2.77 1.26 − 0.25
 Belarus 65.95 67.81 1.85 − 4.27 6.11 1.82 3.26 1.04 0.01
 Russia 61.39 65.26 3.87 1.05 2.98 2.04 0.54 0.40 − 0.16
 Ukraine 64.62 66.31 1.69 − 3.17 4.97 1.56 2.37 1.04 − 0.11
Women
 Japan 78.75 86.89 8.13 7.70 0.28 0.69 − 0.28 − 0.13 0.14
 USA 77.48 81.48 4.00 3.56 0.47 0.73 − 0.06 − 0.20 − 0.03
 Denmark 77.18 82.67 5.50 3.41 1.99 0.43 1.63 − 0.08 0.10
 Finland 77.86 83.84 5.99 6.00 0.04 0.66 − 0.30 − 0.32 − 0.05
 Ireland 75.38 83.24 7.87 7.63 0.03 0.86 − 0.43 − 0.41 0.21
 Norway 79.18 84.09 4.91 4.57 0.51 0.78 − 0.03 − 0.24 − 0.16
 Sweden 78.85 84.06 5.20 4.32 1.03 0.46 0.82 − 0.24 − 0.15
 UK 76.57 82.78 6.21 5.54 0.57 0.82 0.10 − 0.35 0.10
 Austria 76.06 83.75 7.69 6.76 0.96 1.33 − 0.08 − 0.29 − 0.02
 Belgium 76.66 83.53 6.87 6.18 0.80 1.22 − 0.16 − 0.26 − 0.11
 the Netherlands 79.13 83.30 4.16 4.01 0.22 0.79 − 0.29 − 0.28 − 0.06
 Germany, West 76.62 83.35 6.72 5.83 1.04 1.29 − 0.01 − 0.24 − 0.15
 France 78.41 85.45 7.05 6.16 0.95 1.20 − 0.07 − 0.18 − 0.06
 Switzerland 78.85 85.12 6.27 5.31 0.86 1.06 0.06 − 0.26 0.10
 Italy 77.42 84.47 7.04 5.76 1.31 1.25 0.30 − 0.25 − 0.03
 Portugal 75.21 84.15 8.94 6.67 2.25 2.68 − 0.10 − 0.32 0.01
 Spain 78.55 85.65 7.10 5.96 1.06 1.16 0.17 − 0.27 0.08
 Bulgaria 73.90 77.26 3.35 3.61 − 0.32 1.37 − 1.43 − 0.27 0.07
 Czech Republic 73.93 81.73 7.80 7.04 0.93 1.19 − 0.03 − 0.23 − 0.17
 Germany, East 74.64 83.42 8.78 7.65 1.21 1.25 0.19 − 0.23 − 0.09
 Hungary 72.76 79.25 6.50 5.04 1.82 1.55 0.34 − 0.06 − 0.36
 Poland 74.22 81.43 7.21 5.82 1.52 1.76 − 0.08 − 0.16 − 0.13
 Slovakia 74.26 80.32 6.06 4.90 1.17 1.13 0.10 − 0.06 − 0.02
 Lithuania 75.64 79.34 3.70 3.67 0.17 1.43 − 0.82 − 0.43 − 0.15
 Latvia 74.11 78.73 4.63 3.66 1.21 1.77 − 0.36 − 0.19 − 0.25
 Belarus 75.61 78.43 2.83 1.90 0.88 1.39 − 0.12 − 0.38 0.04
 Russia 72.97 76.48 3.51 2.96 0.58 1.20 − 0.46 −0.17 − 0.02
 Ukraine 74.06 76.21 2.15 1.88 0.22 1.06 − 0.67 − 0.18 0.04
  1. *2010 for Bulgaria; 2012 for Italy; 2013 for UK, Lithuania, Latvia, and Ukraine