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Table 5 Results from dynamic random effects models for infant mortality, Nigeria, 1980–2013

From: Clustering of infant deaths among Nigerian women: investigation of temporal patterns using dynamic random effects model

  Coefficients (standard error)
Model I Model II Model III Model IV
Child-related variables
 Death of preceding child, γ (SE) 0.4859 (0.0159)* 0.7069 (0.0423)* 0.6773 (0.0423)* 0.6318 (0.0426)*
 Child birth cohort
  1980–1989 (ref)     
  1990–1999   0.0214 (0.0166) 0.00913 (0.0183) 0.0513 (0.0185)*
  2000–2009   − 0.0664 (0.0170)* − 0.0903 (0.0233)* − 0.0135 (0.0236)
  ≥ 2010   − 0.2342 (0.0239)* − 0.2538 (0.0319)* − 0.1235 (0.0324)*
 Interaction term
  Death of preceding child × child birth cohort   − 0.0932 (0.0163)* − 0.0886 (0.0163)* − 0.0999 (0.0164)*
 Male sex    0.0832 (0.0094)* 0.0832 (0.0095)*
 Birth order
  1 (ref)     
  2–3    − 0.1846 (0.0146)* − 0.1329 (0.0148)*
  4–5    − 0.0979 (0.0134)* − 0.0729 (0.0136)*
  6+     
 Birth interval
  < 24     0.4681 (0.0137)*
  24–36     0.2434 (0.0133)*
  > 36 (ref)     
Maternal variables
 Age at child’s birth
  < 20 (ref)     
  20–34    − 0.1836 (0.0169)* − 0.1267 (0.0170)*
  ≥ 35    − 0.1620 (0.0258)* − 0.0582 (0.0261)*
 Education
  None (ref)     
  Primary    −0.0323 (0.0149)* − 0.0299 (0.0149)*
  Secondary/higher    − 0.0516 (0.0189)* − 0.0526 (0.0191)*
 Household wealth quintile
  Poorest (ref)     
  Poorer    − 0.0021 (0.0138)* − 0.0043 (0.0139)*
  Middle    − 0.1226 (0.0162)* − 0.1201 (0.0164)*
  Richer    − 0.1459 (0.0194)* − 0.1420 (0.0195)*
  Richest    − 0.2122 (0.0253)* − 0.2129 (0.0255)*
 Religion
  Christianity    − 0.0589 (0.0219)* − 0.0657 (0.0221)*
  Islam    − 0.0728 (0.0192)* − 0.0866 (0.0194)*
  Others (ref)     
 Type of place of residence
  Rural    0.0339 (0.0141)* 0.0329 (0.0142)*
  Urban (ref)     
 Region
  North Central    − 0.0358 (0.0226) − 0.0529 (0.0229)*
  North East    0.0644 (0.0266)* 0.0269 (0.0229)
  North West    0.0792 (0.0225)* 0.0456 (0.0228)*
  South East    0.1067 (0.0247)* 0.0573 (0.0249)*
  South South    0.0297 (0.0240)* 0.0052 (0.0242)
  South West (ref)     
Other model parameters
θ (SE) 0.8939 (0.0708)* 0.8691 (0.0698)* 0.9169 (0.0807)* 0.9133 (0.0807)*
 Family-level heterogeneity (SE) 0.1246 (0.0065)* 0.1257 (0.0067)* 0.1116 (0.0068)* 0.1126 (0.0069)*
 Log-likelihood − 64,816.322 − 64,666.778 − 64,145.23 − 63,508.255
  1. *p < 0.05