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Table 4 The calendar effect on the daily births pooling macro-regions

From: One day is not as good as another…at least not across the entire territory of Italy: an analysis of the differences in the daily distribution of births across Italian macro-regions, 1999–2016

Variables 1—M 2—F
IRR S.E. IRR S.E.
Day of the month
 1 0.979*** (0.005) 0.974*** (0.005)
 2 0.989** (0.005) 0.986*** (0.005)
 3 1.004 (0.005) 1.001 (0.005)
 4 1.005 (0.005) 1.003 (0.005)
 5 1.001 (0.005) 0.993 (0.005)
 6 0.994 (0.005) 0.984*** (0.005)
 7 0.996 (0.005) 0.991* (0.005)
 8 0.994 (0.005) 0.998 (0.005)
 9 0.989** (0.005) 0.984*** (0.005)
 10 0.991* (0.005) 0.996 (0.005)
 11 0.989** (0.005) 0.993 (0.005)
 12 0.993 (0.005) 0.990** (0.005)
 13 0.977*** (0.005) 0.973*** (0.005)
 14 0.985*** (0.005) 0.982*** (0.005)
 15 Ref Ref
 16 0.991* (0.005) 0.988** (0.005)
 17 0.966*** (0.008) 0.962*** (0.008)
 18 1.005 (0.005) 1.006 (0.005)
 19 1.000 (0.005) 0.994 (0.005)
 20 1.010** (0.005) 1.005 (0.005)
 21 0.996 (0.005) 0.994 (0.005)
 22 0.984*** (0.005) 0.986*** (0.005)
 23 0.993 (0.005) 0.990* (0.005)
 24 1.000 (0.005) 1.004 (0.005)
 25 0.982*** (0.005) 0.979*** (0.005)
 26 0.985*** (0.005) 0.987** (0.005)
 27 1.000 (0.005) 0.997 (0.005)
 28 0.999 (0.005) 0.993 (0.005)
 29 0.983*** (0.005) 0.974*** (0.005)
 30 0.986*** (0.005) 0.984*** (0.005)
 31 0.985** (0.006) 0.974*** (0.006)
Day of the week
 Sunday 0.692*** (0.002) 0.686*** (0.002)
 Monday 0.988*** (0.002) 0.985*** (0.002)
 Thursday 1.015*** (0.002) 1.013*** (0.002)
 Wednesday Ref Ref
 Tuesday 1.043*** (0.002) 1.041*** (0.003)
 Friday 0.829*** (0.002) 0.823*** (0.002)
 Saturday 1.000 (0.002) 1.000 (0.002)
 Fri_17 0.971*** (0.010) 0.968*** (0.010)
 End/first of the year 0.750*** (0.008) 0.752*** (0.008)
 Civil feast 0.777*** (0.006) 0.777*** (0.007)
 Christmas 0.746*** (0.006) 0.732*** (0.006)
 Other rel. feast 0.770*** (0.004) 0.759*** (0.005)
 All Souls’ day 0.844*** (0.012) 0.836*** (0.012)
 GDP 1.000*** (0.000) 1.000*** (0.000)
Caesarean rate (categorized)
 1st quartile Ref Ref
 2nd quartile 1.035*** (0.003) 1.038*** (0.003)
 3rd quartile 1.096*** (0.005) 1.102*** (0.006)
 4th quartile 0.994 (0.009) 1.001 (0.007)
Interaction term
 2nd quartile × 17th day 1.003 (0.010) 0.993 (0.010)
 3rd quartile × 17th day 0.967*** (0.010) 0.986 (0.010)
 4th quartile × 17th day 0.961*** (0.009) 0.957*** (0.010)
N 31,045 31,045
 pseudo R2 0.204 0.203
 Likelihood-ratio test of alpha = 0
(chi-p value)
7955.6 (0.000) 7503.6 (0.000)
  1. Controlling for month of birth, year fixed effects, and macro-region fixed effects. Standard errors in parentheses corrected for cluster for day month combination
  2. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01