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Table 1 Beta coefficients (with 95% c.i.) of control variables from Figs. 1 and 2 (model 4)

From: Parental age at childbirth and children’s educational outcomes: evidence from upper-secondary schools in Italy

  Enrolment Academic
  (M4) (M4)
Education of the parents (ref. Both lowsec)   
 F lowsec—M uppersec 0.10*** 0.12***
(0.10-0.11) (0.11-0.13)
 F lowsec—M tertiary 0.11*** 0.20***
(0.10-0.12) (0.18-0.22)
 F uppersec—M lowsec 0.11*** 0.11***
(0.10-0.11) (0.10-0.12)
 Both uppersec 0.12*** 0.25***
(0.11-0.12) (0.24-0.26)
 F uppersec—M tertiary 0.12*** 0.37***
(0.11-0.13) (0.36-0.39)
 F tertiary—M lowsec 0.09*** 0.24***
(0.08-0.11) (0.21-0.26)
 F tertiary—M uppersec 0.12*** 0.39***
(0.12-0.13) (0.37-0.40)
 Both tertiary 0.12*** 0.47***
(0.11-0.13) (0.46-0.49)
Social class of the parents (ref. Both Bor)   
 F Bor—M WhC 0.01* −0.05***
(−0.00-0.01) (-0.06 - -0.03)
 F Bor—M PB 0.02** −0.06***
(0.00-0.03) (−0.09 - -0.03)
 F Bor—M WC 0.03*** −0.10***
(0.02-0.04) (−0.13-−0.07)
 F Bor—M Unempl 0.00 -0.14***
(−0.02-0.03) (-0.19 -−0.09)
 F Bor—M Inact 0.01*** -0.09***
(0.01-0.02) (-0.10-−0.07)
 F WhC—M Bor 0.00 −0.04***
(−0.00-0.01) (−0.06-−0.01)
 Both WhC 0.01* −0.10***
(−0.00-0.01) (−0.11-−0.08)
 F WhC—M PB 0.01* −0.08***
(−0.00-0.03) (−0.12-−0.05)
 F WhC—M WC 0.01 −0.17***
(−0.01-0.02) (−0.19-−0.15)
 F WhC—M Unempl 0.01 −0.16***
(−0.00-0.03) (−0.19-−0.12)
 F WhC—M Inact 0.01** −0.16***
(0.00-0.02) (−0.17-−0.14)
 F PB—M Bor −0.02** −0.08***
(−0.04-−0.00) (−0.11-−0.04)
 F PB—M WhC 0.00 −0.12***
(−0.01-0.01) (−0.14-−0.10)
 Both PB −0.01*** −0.13***
(−0.03-−0.00) (−0.15-−0.12)
 F PB—M WC −0.03*** −0.19***
(−0.04-−0.01) (−0.21-−0.17)
 F PB—M Unempl −0.05*** −0.21***
(−0.08-−0.02) (−0.24-−0.18)
 F PB—M Inact −0.03*** −0.18***
(−0.04-−0.02) (−0.20-−0.17)
 F WC—M Bor 0.01 −0.09***
(−0.01-0.03) (−0.13-−0.05)
 F WC—M WhC 0.01* −0.16***
(−0.00-0.02) (−0.18-−0.14)
 F WC—M PB −0.01 −0.19***
(−0.03-0.01) (−0.22-−0.17)
 Both WC −0.03*** −0.21***
(−0.04-−0.02) (−0.22-−0.19)
 F WC—M Unempl −0.08*** −0.24***
(−0.10_−0.07) (−0.26-−0.22)
 F WC—M Inact −0.07*** −0.23***
(−0.08-−0.06) (−0.25-−0.21)
 F Unempl—M Bor −0.02 −0.05
(−0.07-0.03) (−0.14-0.04)
 F Unempl—M WhC −0.01 −0.17***
(−0.03-0.01) (−0.21-−0.13)
 F Unempl—M PB −0.05** −0.21***
(−0.09-−0.01) (−0.26-−0.16)
 F Unempl—M WC −0.10*** −0.25***
(−0.13-−0.08) (−0.27-−0.22)
 Both unempl −0.12*** −0.26***
(−0.15-−0.09) (−0.28-−0.24)
 F Unempl—M Inact −0.13*** −0.24***
(−0.15-−0.11) (−0.26-−0.22)
 F Inact—M Bor −0.01 −0.02
(−0.03-0.01) (−0.07-0.02)
 F Inact—M WhC −0.02*** −0.12***
(−0.03-−0.01) (−0.15-−0.10)
 F Inact—M PB −0.03** −0.19***
(−0.05-−0.00) (−0.22-−0.16)
 F Inact—M WC −0.11*** −0.23***
(−0.13-−0.09) (−0.25-−0.20)
 F Inact—M Unempl −0.14*** −0.27***
(−0.18-−0.10) (−0.30-−0.24)
 Both Inact −0.12*** −0.24***
(−0.13-−0.10) (−0.26-−0.22)
Region of residence (ref. Piemonte)   
 Valle d’Aosta 0.00 −0.07***
(−0.01-0.02) (−0.09-−0.06)
 Lombardia −0.02*** −0.05***
(−0.02-−0.01) (−0.06-−0.04)
 Trentino Alto Adige −0.08*** −0.09***
(−0.09-−0.07) (−0.10-−0.08)
 Veneto −0.01 −0.03***
(−0.02-0.00) (−0.05-−0.02)
 Friuli Venezia Giulia 0.03*** −0.02***
(0.01-0.04) (−0.04-−0.01)
 Liguria 0.02*** 0.03***
(0.01-0.03) (0.02-0.05)
 Emilia-Romagna 0.03*** −0.06***
(0.02-0.04) (−0.07-−0.05)
 Toscana 0.04*** −0.04***
(0.03-0.05) (−0.05-−0.03)
 Umbria 0.05*** 0.01
(0.04-0.06) (−0.01-0.02)
 Marche 0.04*** −0.02**
(0.03-0.05) (−0.03-−0.00)
 Lazio 0.04*** 0.05***
(0.03-0.04) (0.04-0.06)
 Abruzzo 0.05*** 0.03***
(0.04-0.06) (0.01-0.05)
 Molise 0.08*** 0.05***
(0.07-0.09) (0.04-0.07)
 Campania 0.03*** 0.07***
(0.02-0.04) (0.06-0.08)
 Puglia 0.04*** 0.06***
(0.03-0.05) (0.05-0.07)
 Basilicata 0.08*** 0.06***
(0.07-0.09) (0.04-0.07)
 Calabria 0.06*** 0.06***
(0.05-0.07) (0.05-0.07)
 Sicilia 0.01*** 0.03***
(0.00-0.02) (0.02-0.04)
 Sardegna 0.04*** 0.08***
(0.03-0.05) (0.06-0.09)
Birth order (ref. Only child)   
 First born 0.02*** 0.02***
(0.01-0.02) (0.01-0.02)
 Second born −0.02*** −0.05***
(−0.03-−0.02) (−0.06-−0.05)
 Third born or more −0.04*** −0.07***
(−0.05-−0.03) (−0.09-−0.06)
Family size (< 3 children)   
 3 children or more −0.04*** −0.02***
(−0.05-−0.04) (−0.03-−0.02)
Age (ref. 15)   
 16 −0.01*** −0.00
(−0.01-−0.00) (−0.01-0.00)
 17 −0.03*** −0.01***
(−0.03-−0.02) (−0.02-−0.00)
 18 −0.05*** −0.02***
(−0.06-−0.05) (−0.02-−0.01)
Born abroad −0.14*** −0.09***
(−0.15-−0.13) (−0.09-−0.08)
Female 0.04*** 0.04***
(0.04-0.05) (0.04-0.05)
Constant 0.63*** 0.25***
(0.59-0.66) (0.22-0.28)
Observations 213,538 213,538
R-squared 0.13 0.23
  1. Notes: Dummies for trimester of interview are not shown
  2. ***p < 0.01
  3. **p < 0.05
  4. *p < 0.1