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Table 3 Odds ratios of the association of unintended births with religion, region of residence, and other covariates among women in Nigeria (NDHS 2018)

From: Relationship between Religion and Unintended Childbearing in Nigeria: A Cross-Regional Perspective

Explanatory factors Model I (SE) Model II (SE) Model III (SE) Model IV (SE)
Religious affiliation
 Catholic 0.65 (0.068)*** 0.60 (0.065)*** 0.60 (0.067)*** 0.92 (0.227)
 Other Christians Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Muslims 0.24 (0.021) *** 0.56 (0.061)*** 0.52 (0.059)*** 0.36 (0.088)***
Region of residence
 North-central   Ref Ref Ref
 North-east   0.84 (0.136) 0.76 (0.127) 0.47 (0.091)***
 North-west   0.61 (0.101)*** 0.54 (0.089)*** 0.37 (0.153)***
 South-east/south-south   1.89 (0.239)*** 1.78 (0.242)*** 1.72 (0.266)***
 South-west   1.14 (0.175) 1.19 (0.183) 1.03 (0.192)
Women’s age
 15–24 years   Ref Ref Ref
 25–34 years   0.72 (0.059)*** 0.51 (0.048)*** 0.52 (0.048)***
 35 years and above   1.22 (0.105)** 0.57 (0.066)*** 0.57 (0.067)***
Women’s education
 None   Ref Ref Ref
 Primary   1.72 (0.211)*** 1.68 (0.213)*** 1.66 (0.212)***
 Secondary   1.99 (0.234)*** 2.29 (0.272)*** 2.27 (0.281)***
 Post-secondary   1.29 (0.224)** 2.12 (0.375)*** 2.11 (0.379)***
Place of residence
 Urban   1.02 (0.096) 0.97 (0.096) 0.99(0.098)
 Rural   Ref Ref Ref
Household wealth quintile
 First quintile   0.92 (0.122) 0.89 (0.121) 0.89 (0.121)
 Second quintile   0.88 (0.092) 0.82 (0.089) 0.82 (0.089)
 Third quintile   Ref Ref Ref
 Fourth quintile   1.10 (0.111) 1.17 (0.123) 1.17 (0.124)
 Fifth quintile   0.73 (0.097)* 0.89 (0.123) 0.90 (0.126)
Type of marital union
 Never married    11.08 (2.131)** 11.74 (2.346)***
 Monogamous    Ref Ref
 Polygamous    1.49 (0.127)*** 1.49 (0.127)***
 Previously married or separated    2.10 (0.451)*** 2.10 (0.451)***
Employment status
 Working    0.84 (0.068)* 0.83 (0.068)*
 Not working    Ref Ref
Women’s participation in their own health decision-making
 Participated in her own health decision-making    0.99 (0.079) 0.99 (0.080)
 Not involved in her own health decision-making    Ref Ref
Head of household sex
 Male    0.87 (0.091) 0.89 (0.093)
 Female    Ref Ref
Mass media exposure to family planning message
 No exposure    0.81 (0.070)* 0.81 (0.069)*
 Exposed to one mass media source    Ref Ref
 Exposed to two mass media sources    0.87 (0.117) 0.86 (0.115)
 Exposed to three mass media sources    0.40 (0.097)*** 0.40 (0.098)***
Number of living children
 None    0.87 (0.291) 0.88 (0.293)
 1–2 children    Ref Ref
 3–4 children    1.79 (0.162)*** 1.79 (0.162)***
 5 children and above    4.10 (0.472)*** 4.14 (0.473)***
Religious affiliation × region of residence
 North-east × Catholic     0.73 (0.409)
 North-east × Muslim     2.45 (0.779)***
 North-west × Catholic     1.95 (1.315)
 North-west × Muslim     1.99 (0.915)
 South-east-South-south × Catholic     0.52 (0.147)*
 South-east-South-south × Muslim     1.57 (0.837)
 South-west × Catholic     0.55 (0.346)
 South-west × Muslim     1.67 (0.533)
Constant 0.31 (0.017)*** 0.15 (0.025) *** 0.14 (0.031)*** 0.15 (0.037)***
Adjusted Wald test (Prob > F)   22.50 (0.000) 20.73 (0.000) 0.11 (0.738)
Number of cases 12,999 12,999 12,999 12,999
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001