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Table 5 Descriptive characteristics of grandfathers ≥ 60 years by self-perceived health status (data are expressed as the percentage, except for age)

From: Associations of family and social contact with health among Italian grandparents

   Good/very good (N = 1348) Fair (N = 1296) Poor/very poor (N = 619) Total (N = 3263)
At least weekly contact with grandchildren***   84.6 80.9 75.8 81.5
At least weekly contact with children   88.6 87.0 85.0 87.6
At least weekly contact with siblings*** % no siblings 16.1 17.6 22.9 18.0
% having sibling but less than weekly contacts 44.0 45.0 46.1 44.8
% at least weekly contacts 39.9 37.4 31.0 37.2
Social network % having friends*** 52.5 45.1 36.8 46.6
% having someone living nearby they can count on in when in need 50.2 48.6 46.4 48.8
Age*** Median age 69 74 77 72
Education*** % with a diploma or higher 27.7 13.9 11.2 19.1
Region*** % north 45.3 36.6 28.3 38.6
% centre 21.0 19.6 18.7 20.0
% south 33.7 43.8 53.0 41.4
Living arrangements*** % living alone 9.1 10.8 15.2 10.9
% living with partner 87.8 84.4 78.5 84.7
% living without a spouse and with other people 3.1 4.8 6.3 4.4
Work status*** % in the workforce 13.5 6.5 3.4 8.8
Subjective financial situation*** % economic resources of the family are considered at least adequate 71.7 61.7 45.1 62.6
  1. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences by health status: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001