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Table 1 Criteria of causal inference

From: Causal assessment in demographic research

Ní Bhrolcháin and Dyson (2007) Time order Rothman and Greenland (1998) Strength
  Contiguity   Consistency
  Duration   Specificity
  Distinctiveness   Temporality
  Direction   Biologic gradient
  Proportionality   Plausibility
  Recurrence   Coherence
  No cause, no effect   Experimental evidence
  Mechanism   Analogy
  No alternative