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Table 1 Number of students enrolled in ISCED level 8 programmes (namely, doctoral or equivalent level) in selected European countries. Years 2014–2018

From: Italian PhD students at the borders: the relationship between family background and international mobility

  2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
France 68,938 68,607 67,679 66,855 66,096
Germany 214,700 196,200 197,000 198,300 200,400
Italy 33,512 32,775 32,947 27,729 28,338
Spain 24,317 32,062 55,628 71,548 85,480
UK 111,395 112,800 113,003 112,289 111,257
Poland 43,358 43,399 43,177 43,181 41,318
  1. Source: UNESCO