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Table 2 PhD students by their type of stay and individual and contextual characteristics. Absolute and raw percentage values

From: Italian PhD students at the borders: the relationship between family background and international mobility

  Remained in Italy Study abroad  
Facultative and financed stay Facultative and non-financed stay Total
Parental education
Primary 1412 (75.2) 325 (17.3) 141 (7.5) 1878
Lower secondary 3076 (66.4) 1166 (25.2) 391 (8.4) 4633
Upper secondary 6553 (64.5) 2766 (27.2) 837 (8.2) 10,156
Tertiary/post-tertiary 7242 (62.1) 3283 (28.2) 1129 (9.7) 11,654
Unknown 140   24   11   175
Mother’s economic activity
Employed/self-employed 9977 (62.5) 4547 (28.5) 1426 (8.9) 15,950
Homemaker 6318 (68.2) 2180 (23.5) 769 (8.3) 9267
Retired 1363 (63.4) 578 (26.9) 209 (9.7) 2150
Other conditions 765 (67.8) 259 (22.9) 105 (9.3) 1129
Father’s social class
Higher-grade professional 3369 (63.8) 1345 (25.5) 571 (10.8) 5285
Lower-grade professional 6137 (63.3) 2729 (28.1) 836 (8.6) 9702
Routine non-manual 1229 (66.2) 488 (26.3) 139 (7.5) 1856
Self-employed 3657 (64.9) 1481 (26.3) 498 (8.8) 5636
Working class (skilled/unskilled worker) 2570 (65.8) 1038 (26.6) 299 (7.7) 3907
Unknown social class 1461   483   166   2110
Gender
Male 8286 (61.8) 3870 (28.9) 1245 (9.3) 13,401
Female 10,137 (67.2) 3694 (24.5) 1264 (8.4) 15,095
Student’s main source of earnings
Full scholarship 10,505 (58.5) 6293 (35.0) 1176 (6.5) 17,974
Partial scholarship 1031 (67.5) 351 (23.0) 145 (9.5) 1527
Research grant 906 (69.4) 241 (18.5) 158 (12.1) 1305
Other grants from the same university 712 (70.9) 170 (16.9) 123 (12.2) 1005
Earnings outside university 4306 (80.0) 367 (6.8) 709 (13.2) 5382
No source of earning 963 (73.9) 142 (10.9) 198 (15.2) 1303
Macro-area of athenaeum
North 6906 (59.9) 3628 (31.5) 1000 (8.7) 11,534
Centre 5665 (66.8) 2020 (23.8) 794 (9.4) 8479
South/Islands 5852 (69.0) 1916 (22.6) 715 (8.4) 8483
Interregional move for PhD studies
No 14,274 (65.9) 5716 (26.4) 1686 (7.8) 21,676
Yes 4149 (60.8) 1848 (27.1) 823 (12.1) 6820
Year of PhD dissertation
2008 4740 (65.9) 1865 (25.9) 593 (8.2) 7198
2010 4905 (65.5) 1991 (26.6) 593 (7.9) 7489
2012 4587 (63.9) 1906 (26.6) 684 (9.5) 7177
2014 4191 (63.2) 1802 (27.2) 639 (9.6) 6632
Field of study
Science and Engineering 5715 (59.2) 3326 (34.4) 617 (6.4) 9658
Life Science 6643 (72.5) 1882 (20.5) 641 (7.0) 9166
Social Science and Humanities 6065 (62.7) 2356 (24.4) 1251 (12.9) 9672
Total 18,423 (64.7) 7564 (26.5) 2509 (8.8) 28,496
  1. Authors’ elaboration on the Istat Survey on occupational conditions of PhD holders. Years 2014 and 2018