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Table 4 Model coefficients for Model 1, Model 2, Model 3 and Model 4a

From: Italian PhD students at the borders: the relationship between family background and international mobility

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Coeff. std error p value Coeff. std error p value Coeff. std error p value Coeff. std error p value
a) Facultative and financed stay
 Parental education (ref. upper secondary)
  Primary −0.606 0.057 0.000 −0.543 0.052 0.000 −0.577 0.048 0.000 −0.385 0.013 0.000
  Lower secondary −0.108 0.041 0.008 −0.064 0.043 0.131 −0.098 0.046 0.033 −0.026 0.052 0.612
  Tertiary/post-tertiary 0.071 0.032 0.028 0.037 0.030 0.231 0.080 0.021 0.000 0.109 0.020 0.000
  Unknown −0.901 0.213 0.000 −0.826 0.241 0.001 −0.741 0.255 0.004 −0.863 0.230 0.000
 Mother’s economic activity (ref. employed/self-employed)
  Homemaker     −0.206 0.007 0.000 −0.202 0.009 0.000 −0.135 0.012 0.000
  Retired     −0.060 0.014 0.000 −0.049 0.013 0.000 −0.043 0.014 0.002
  Other conditions     −0.172 0.060 0.004 −0.140 0.063 0.026 −0.114 0.059 0.052
 Father’s social class (ref. lower-grade prof)
  Higher-grade professionals        −0.126 0.029 0.000 −0.099 0.039 0.010
  Routine non-manual        −0.002 0.046 0.966 −0.001 0.049 0.977
  Self-employed        0.003 0.024 0.892 −0.006 0.048 0.895
  Working class (skilled/unskilled)        0.121 0.017 0.000 0.053 0.026 0.044
  Unknown social class        −0.152 0.025 0.000 −0.069 0.017 0.000
 Gender (ref. male)
  Female           −0.196 0.047 0.000
 Scholarship (ref. full scholarship)
  Partial scholarship           −0.523 0.089 0.000
  Research grant           −0.878 0.048 0.000
  Other grants from university           −0.832 0.095 0.000
  Earnings outside university           −1.915 0.037 0.000
  No source of earnings           −1.348 0.082 0.000
 Macro-area of athenaeum (ref. north)
  Centre           −0.347 0.048 0.000
  South/Islands           −0.394 0.140 0.005
 Interregional move for PhD studies (ref. no)
  Yes           0.151 0.094 0.107
 Year of defence (ref. 2008)
  2010           0.049 0.078 0.528
  2012           0.073 0.088 0.410
  2014           0.138 0.099 0.162
 Field of study (ref. Science and Engineering)
  Life Science           −0.560 0.010 0.000
  Social Science and Humanities           −0.168 0.013 0.000
 Constant −0.863 0.191 0.000 −0.783 0.195 0.000 −0.781 0.192 0.000 0.169 0.112 0.132
b) Facultative and non-financed stay
 Parental education (ref. upper secondary)
  Primary −0.246 0.040 0.000 −0.223 0.054 0.000 −0.199 0.076 0.009 −0.214 0.073 0.003
  Lower secondary −0.005 0.062 0.938 0.013 0.068 0.855 0.038 0.044 0.381 0.037 0.053 0.476
  Tertiary/post-tertiary 0.199 0.043 0.000 0.183 0.051 0.000 0.114 0.039 0.003 0.079 0.034 0.019
  Unknown −0.486 0.480 0.311 −0.551 0.492 0.263 −0.473 0.491 0.336 −0.495 0.566 0.382
 Mother’s economic activity (ref. employed/self-employed)
  Homemaker     −0.083 0.058 0.147 −0.091 0.057 0.109 −0.084 0.050 0.091
  Retired     0.077 0.013 0.000 0.074 0.015 0.000 0.020 0.037 0.593
  Other conditions     0.070 0.023 0.003 0.100 0.008 0.000 0.096 0.011 0.000
 Father’s social class (ref. lower-grade prof)
  Higher-grade professionals        0.187 0.038 0.000 0.170 0.025 0.000
  Routine non-manual        −0.129 0.122 0.289 −0.124 0.107 0.245
  Self-employed        0.038 0.129 0.768 0.015 0.121 0.899
  Working class (skilled/unskilled)        −0.062 0.102 0.546 −0.055 0.090 0.542
  Unknown social class        −0.132 0.113 0.244 −0.174 0.104 0.096
 Gender (ref. male)
  Female           −0.204 0.122 0.094
 Scholarship (ref. full scholarship)
  Partial scholarship           0.240 0.027 0.000
  Research grant           0.526 0.102 0.000
  Other grants from university           0.521 0.037 0.000
  Earnings outside university           0.253 0.227 0.265
  No source of earnings           0.443 0.123 0.000
 Macro-area of athenaeum (ref. north)
  Centre           −0.090 0.062 0.147
  South/Islands           −0.144 0.061 0.018
 Interregional move for PhD studies (ref. no)
  Yes           0.383 0.053 0.000
 Year of defence (ref. 2008)
  2010           −0.023 0.043 0.583
  2012           0.182 0.102 0.073
  2014           0.184 0.096 0.055
 Field of study (ref. Science and Engineering)
  Life Science           −0.089 0.019 0.000
  Social Science and Humanities           0.610 0.039 0.000
 Constant −2.058 0.262 0.000 −2.037 0.279 0.000 −2.033 0.269 0.000 −2.199 0.197 0.000
  Log-likelihood −24,080.4 −24,057.7 −24,031.9 −22,411.6
  AIC 48,164.7 48,119.4 48,069.8 44,827.2
  BIC 48,181.2 48,135.9 48,094.6 44,843.7
  1. aModel 1, Model 2, Model 3 and Model 4 are multinomial logistic models with random errors clustered at the field of study (the response variable is about international mobility during PhD studies with three categories—where the reference category is the student who remained in Italy), and they differ only for the control variables included in the four model specifications