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Table 2 Results of multinomial logistic regression of fertility gap in Ghana

From: Consistency of the determinants of achieving fertility desires in Ghana: insights from 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data sets

  2003 2008 2014
UF vs OF AF vs OF UF vs OF AF vs OF UF vs OF AF vs OF
RRR (S.E) RRR (S.E) RRR (S.E) RRR (S.E) RRR (S.E) RRR (S.E)
Survival status (ref = All children survived)
 Infant deaths 0.50 (0.19) 0.31 (0.14)* 0.55 (0.23) 0.19 (0.10)** 0.58 (0.17) 0.47 (0.15)*
 Child deaths 0.19 (0.91)** 0.38 (0.17)* 0.98 (0.49) 0.52 (0.29) 0.75 (0.26) 0.83 (0.31)
 Infant and child deaths 0.16 (0.11)** 0.41 (0.25) 0.74 (0.44) 0.49 (0.31) 0.16 (0.11)** 0.66 (0.31)
Type of place of residence (ref = Urban)
 Rural 1.01 (0.39) 0.37 (0.15)* 1.13 (0.44) 1.45 (0.59) 0.60 (0.16) 0.74 (0.21)
Education (in completed years) 1.05 (0.04) 1.01 (0.04) 1.00 (0.045) 1.01 (0.05) 1.05 (0.04) 1.05 (0.04)
Ethnicity (ref = Akan)
 Ga-Dangbe/Ewe 0.89 (0.38) 0.96 (0.41) 1.12 (0.53) 0.89 (0.45) 1.06 (0.37) 0.95 (0.33)
 Mole-Dagbani 3.33 (1.78)* 3.61 (1.97)* 3.74 (2.24)* 5.47 (1.58)** 1.52 (0.62) 0.64 (0.27)
 Other 2.02 (1.09) 2.36 (1.28) 2.64 (1.57) 2.49 (1.65) 3.10 (1.29)** 1.07 (0.47)
Religion (ref = Catholic)
 Other Christian 1.40 (0.65) 1.08 (0.52) 0.71 (0.36) 1.49 (0.82) 0.90 (0.32) 0.86 (0.32)
 Islam 1.01 (0.62) 0.47 (0.29) 1.08 (0.67) 0.94 (0.69) 1.39 (0.58) 0.89 (0.42)
 Other 1.34 (0.80) 1.12 (0.66) 1.08 (0.66) 0.99 (0.69) 0.86 (0.46) 1.04 (0.56)
Age at first birth (ref ≤ 18 years)
 18–20 years 0.93 (0.41) 1.33 (0.61) 0.40 (0.17)* 0.86 (0.39) 1.66 (0.52) 1.47 (0.48)
 21 years +  2.54 (1.11)* 3.35 (1.53)** 1.14 (0.46) 1.24 (0.58) 1.79 (0.54) 1.43 (0.46)
Number of marital union (ref = Once)
 More than once 0.93 (0.31) 0.62 (0.22) 0.96 (0.36) 0.62 (0.26) 1.23 (0.32) 0.64 (0.18)
Ever use of modern contraceptives (ref = No)
 Yes 0.58 (0.19) 0.48 (0.17)* 0.69 (0.25) 1.08 (0.41) 0.68 (0.16) 0.68 (0.17)
Partner’s education (in completed years) 0.97 (0.03) 0.97 (0.03) 1.00 (0.05) 1.04 (0.05) 0.98 (0.03) 0.94 (0.03)
Couple’s fertility preference (ref = Both want same)
 Partner wants more 0.79 (0.31) 0.88 (0.35) 0.64 (0.290 0.39 (0.19) 0.51 (0.15)* 0.42 (0.13)**
 Partner wants fewer 1.82 (1.25) 2.45 (1.69)* 5.44 (2.05)* 1.44 (1.22) 4.56 (2.37)** 1.03 (0.64)
 Don’t know 0.95 (0.42) 1.18 (0.52) 0.79 (0.32) 0.32 (0.15)** 0.96 (0.29) 0.69 (0.23)
 Sample size 304 252 474
 Log likelihood − 274.17 − 230.81 − 469.66
 Prob > Chi2 0.0004 0.0067 0.0000
  1. Source: Generated from the GDHS 2003, 2008 and 2014; * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. UF underachieved fertility, OF overachieved fertility, AF achieved fertility, RRR relative risk ratio, SE standard error