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Table 1 Weighted descriptive characteristics of respondents by year

From: A change is (not) gonna come: a 20-year overview of Italian grandparent–grandchild exchanges

N Descriptive statistics by wave
1998 2003 2009 2016
9578 10,315 9659 6255
Intergenerational exchanges    
 Coresidence with at least 1 grandchild 7.65 7.05 5.81 7.18
 Contacts with at least 1 grandchild    
  Daily 47.72 45.08 42.56 39.40
 Grandchild caregiving     
  Never 21.58 22.20 17.64 17.94
  Parents work 29.50 33.39 34.48 39.29
Occasional 39.75 35.98 37.74 34.08
 Holidays 9.17 8.42 10.13 8.67
Demographic and socio-economic characteristics
 Women 60.21 59.92 59.97 59.33
 Age class     
  < 49 6.58 2.38 2.30 2.37
  50–59 (ref.) 17.42 16.00 14.63 12.18
  60–74 53.35 51.18 47.57 47.11
  75 +  26.60 30.43 35.50 38.34
 Marital status     
  Married 68.35 68.28 67.42 66.57
  Widow 28.30 27.95 26.54 25.70
  Divorced/separated/Never married 3.35 3.77 6.04 7.73
 Macro-region of residence     
  North 44.50 44.27 44.06 44.72
  Centre 21.10 20.96 21.40 19.74
  South 34.40 34.77 34.54 35.53
 Education     
  High school diploma 9.02 10.39 13.63 21.86
 Working status     
  At work 10.95 11.24 10.93 11.66
  Other 53.50 57.47 55.74 57.14
  Retired 35.55 31.29 33.33 31.20
 Own Income     
 Yes 84.41 85.04 84.52 83.92
 Chronic disease 17.69 18.21 14.64 13.04
 Number of grandchildren (Mean; SD) 3.48 (3.25) 3.34 (2.84) 3.15 (2.64) 2.97 (1.91)
 Living proximity     
  < 1 km (included coresidence) 51.99 51.79 46.02 45.27
  Between 1 to 16 km 35.09 34.63 37.50 36.94
  > 16 km 12.92 13.58 16.49 17.79
  1. Family and Social Subjects (FSS) Survey, ISTAT. Weighted data