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Table 2 Logistic regression models estimating the Average Marginal Effects (AMEs) of having at least one coresident grandchild among all grandparents by year

From: A change is (not) gonna come: a 20-year overview of Italian grandparent–grandchild exchanges

Variables Coresidence—Logit AMEs (SE)
With at least one grandchild χ2 ϕορ Η0: β1998 = β2016
1998 2003 2009 2016 P
Women 0.000  − 0.000  − 0.012**  − 0.007 n.s
  (0.007) (0.006) (0.006) (0.007)  
Age class < 49 (ref. 50–59) 0.066*** 0.052*** 0.096*** 0.144*** n.s
  (0.023) (0.022) (0.028) (0.048)  
Age class 60–74 (ref. 50–59)  − 0.004  − 0.007  − 0.025***  − 0.060*** ***
  (0.009) (0.007) (0.010) (0.016)  
Age class 75 + (ref. 50–59) 0.032*** 0.022**  − 0.023  − 0.062*** ***
  (0.011) (0.010) (0.011) (0.018)  
Widow (ref. Married) 0.121*** 0.079*** 0.085*** 0.046*** ***
  (0.010) (0.008) (0.009) (0.011)  
Divorced/separated/Never married (ref. Married) 0.047** 0.028** 0.039***  − 0.006 **
  (0.018) (0.013) (0.011) (0.009)  
Macro Region of residence: Centre (ref. North) 0.061*** 0.027*** 0.026*** 0.053*** n.s
  (0.008) (0.007) (0.007) (0.010)  
Macro Region of residence: South (ref. North)  − 0.014**  − 0.005  − 0.004  − 0.001 n.s
High school diploma  − 0.041***  − 0.036***  − 0.006  − 0.020** n.s
  (0.163) (0.010) (0.008) (0.008)  
  (0.006) (0.005) (0.005) (0.006)  
Working status: Working (ref. Retired) 0.026* 0.044*** 0.009 0.006 n.s
  (0.015) (0.014) (0.011) (0.013)  
Working status: Other (ref. Retired)  − 0.001 0.011*  − 0.005 0.008 n.s
  (0.007) (0.006) (0.006) (0.009)  
Own income  − 0.018  − 0.032***  − 0.020**  − 0.022* n.s
  (0.011) (0.010) (0.008) (0.012)  
Chronic conditions 0.012 0.006 0.018*** 0.019** n.s
  (0.007) (0.006) (0.006) (0.009)  
Number of grandchildren 0.003*** 0.001 0.001  − 0.002 ***
  (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.001)  
Observations 9578 10315 9659 5893  
  1. Family and Social Subjects (FSS) Survey, ISTAT
  2. n.s. not significant
  3. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01