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Table 3 Logistic regression models estimating the Average Marginal Effects (AMEs) of daily contacts with grandchild among all grandparents by year

From: A change is (not) gonna come: a 20-year overview of Italian grandparent–grandchild exchanges

Variables Face to face contacts—Logit AMEs (SE)
Daily vs less often χ2 ϕορ Η0: β98 = β16
1998 2003 2009 2016 p
Women 0.012 0.008 0.010  − 0.000 n.s
  (0.011) (0.010) (0.010) (0.013)  
Age class < 49 (ref. 50–59)  − 0.005  − 0.029 0.009  − 0.080 n.s
  (0.027) (0.030) (0.034) (0.056)  
Age class 60–74 (ref. 50–59)  − 0.071***  − 0.064***  − 0.041***  − 0.047** n.s
  (0.012) (0.013) (0.015) (0.021)  
Age class 75 + (ref. 50–59)  − 0.166***  − 0.148***  − 0.173***  − 0.150*** n.s
  (0.016) (0.016) (0.017) (0.024)  
Widow (ref. Married)  − 0.066***  − 0.051***  − 0.042***  − 0.033* n.s
  (0.012) (0.011) (0.012) (0.015)  
Divorced/separated/Never married (ref. Married)  − 0.104**  − 0.069***  − 0.128***  − 0.137*** n.s
  (0.028) (0.025) (0.021) (0.023)  
Macro Region of residence: Centre (ref. North) 0.016  − 0.004 0.003 0.023 n.s
  (0.011) (0.011) (0.012) (0.016)  
Macro Region of residence: South (ref. North) 0.037*** 0.029*** 0.035*** 0.052*** n.s
  (0.010) (0.010) (0.010) (0.013)  
High school diploma  − 0.059***  − 0.030**  − 0.014  − 0.002 ***
  (0.016) (0.015) (0.014) (0.014)  
Working status: Working (ref. Retired)  − 0.002  − 0.016  − 0.021 0.010 n.s
  (0.019) (0.019) (0.019) (0.025)  
Working status: Other (ref. Retired) 0.022*  − 0.001 0.014 0.031** n.s
  (0.012) (0.013) (0.012) (0.017)  
Own income 0.016 0.024 0.021 0.003 n.s
  (0.016) (0.017) (0.016) (0.022)  
Chronic conditions  − 0.048***  − 0.035***  − 0.016  − 0.049*** n.s
  (0.012) (0.012) (0.012) (0.017)  
Number of grandchildren  − 0.010***  − 0.013***  − 0.009***  − 0.013*** n.s
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.003)  
Living proximity with grandchildren: < 1 km (ref. > 16 km) 0.684*** 0.639*** 0.651*** 0.614*** n.s
  (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.010)  
between 1 to 16 km (ref. > 16 km) 0.280*** 0.286*** 0.278*** 0.286*** **
  (0.009) (0.009) (0.008) (0.011)  
Observations 9103 9921 9318 5634  
  1. Family and Social Subjects (FSS) Survey, ISTAT
  2. n.s. not significant
  3. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01