Journal of Population Sciences

# Table 3 Logistic regression models estimating the Average Marginal Effects (AMEs) of daily contacts with grandchild among all grandparents by year

Variables Face to face contacts—Logit AMEs (SE)
Daily vs less often χ2 ϕορ Η0: β98 = β16
1998 2003 2009 2016 p
Women 0.012 0.008 0.010  − 0.000 n.s
(0.011) (0.010) (0.010) (0.013)
Age class < 49 (ref. 50–59)  − 0.005  − 0.029 0.009  − 0.080 n.s
(0.027) (0.030) (0.034) (0.056)
Age class 60–74 (ref. 50–59)  − 0.071***  − 0.064***  − 0.041***  − 0.047** n.s
(0.012) (0.013) (0.015) (0.021)
Age class 75 + (ref. 50–59)  − 0.166***  − 0.148***  − 0.173***  − 0.150*** n.s
(0.016) (0.016) (0.017) (0.024)
Widow (ref. Married)  − 0.066***  − 0.051***  − 0.042***  − 0.033* n.s
(0.012) (0.011) (0.012) (0.015)
Divorced/separated/Never married (ref. Married)  − 0.104**  − 0.069***  − 0.128***  − 0.137*** n.s
(0.028) (0.025) (0.021) (0.023)
Macro Region of residence: Centre (ref. North) 0.016  − 0.004 0.003 0.023 n.s
(0.011) (0.011) (0.012) (0.016)
Macro Region of residence: South (ref. North) 0.037*** 0.029*** 0.035*** 0.052*** n.s
(0.010) (0.010) (0.010) (0.013)
High school diploma  − 0.059***  − 0.030**  − 0.014  − 0.002 ***
(0.016) (0.015) (0.014) (0.014)
Working status: Working (ref. Retired)  − 0.002  − 0.016  − 0.021 0.010 n.s
(0.019) (0.019) (0.019) (0.025)
Working status: Other (ref. Retired) 0.022*  − 0.001 0.014 0.031** n.s
(0.012) (0.013) (0.012) (0.017)
Own income 0.016 0.024 0.021 0.003 n.s
(0.016) (0.017) (0.016) (0.022)
Chronic conditions  − 0.048***  − 0.035***  − 0.016  − 0.049*** n.s
(0.012) (0.012) (0.012) (0.017)
Number of grandchildren  − 0.010***  − 0.013***  − 0.009***  − 0.013*** n.s
(0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.003)
Living proximity with grandchildren: < 1 km (ref. > 16 km) 0.684*** 0.639*** 0.651*** 0.614*** n.s
(0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.010)
between 1 to 16 km (ref. > 16 km) 0.280*** 0.286*** 0.278*** 0.286*** **
(0.009) (0.009) (0.008) (0.011)
Observations 9103 9921 9318 5634
1. Family and Social Subjects (FSS) Survey, ISTAT
2. n.s. not significant
3. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01