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Table 4 Multinomial logistic regression models estimating the Average Marginal Effects (AMEs) of grandchild caregiving among all grandparents by year

From: A change is (not) gonna come: a 20-year overview of Italian grandparent–grandchild exchanges

Variables Caregiving—Mlogit AMEs (SE)
Caregiving (holidays) Caregiving (Parents work) Caregiving (holidays) Caregiving (Parents work) Caregiving (holidays) Caregiving (Parents work) Caregiving (holidays) Caregiving (Parents work) χ2 ϕορ Η0: β98 = β16 χ2 ϕορ Η0: β98 = β16
Caregiving (holidays) Caregiving (Parents work)
1998 1998 2003 2003 2009 2009 2016 2016 P P
Women 0.008 0.048***  − 0.002 0.037* 0.001 0.036*  − 0.010 0.067*** n.s n.s
  (0.010) (0.016) (0.009) (0.015) (0.011) (0.016) (0.012) (0.020)   
Age class < 49 (ref. 50–59)  − 0.008 0.042  − 0.035*  − 0.051  − 0.009  − 0.055  − 0.013  − 0.119 n.s n.s
  (0.016) (0.034) (0.018) (0.039) (0.026) (0.044) (0.032) (0.066)   
Age class 60–74 (ref. 50–59) 0.021**  − 0.009 0.022**  − 0.027  − 0.002 0.029 0.010 0.018 n.s n.s
  (0.010) (0.016) (0.010) (0.017) (0.012) (0.019) (0.015) (0.027)   
Age class 75 + (ref. 50–59) 0.037*  − 0.099*** 0.024  − 0.115** 0.030*  − 0.087*** 0.021  − 0.028 n.s n.s
  (0.019) (0.026) (0.016) (0.025) (0.018) (0.025) (0.021) (0.037)   
Widow (ref. Married)  − 0.030**  − 0.052***  − 0.025**  − 0.044*  − 0.004  − 0.067*** 0.015  − 0.064* * n.s
  (0.011) (0.020) (0.011) (0.019) (0.013) (0.020) (0.019) (0.028)   
Divorced/separated/Never married (ref. Married)  − 0.043*  − 0.081* 0.043**  − 0.056  − 0.027  − 0.010 0.021  − 0.025 * n.s
  (0.021) (0.041) (0.024) (0.035) (0.017) (0.032) (0.019) (0.037)   
Macro Region of residence: Centre (ref. North)  − 0.012  − 0.085***  − 0.008  − 0.002  − 0.002 0.013 0.051***  − 0.048* *** n.s
  (0.010) (0.017) (0.009) (0.017) (0.011) (0.019) (0.015) (0.025)   
Macro Region of residence: South (ref. North) 0.043  − 0.141*** 0.064***  − 0.137*** 0.039***  − 0.140*** 0.047***  − 0.178*** n.s n.s
  (0.009) (0.015) (0.009) (0.014) (0.010) (0.015) (0.011) (0.020)   
High school diploma  − 0.009  − 0.059* 0.003  − 0.013 0.012 0.027 0.028* 0.015 *** ***
  (0.014) (0.022) (0.011) (0.018) (0.011) (0.018) (0.011) (0.019)   
Working status: Working (ref. Retired) 0.032*  − 0.074*** 0.028  − 0.139***  − 0.010  − 0.046* 0.028  − 0.000 n.s n.s
  (0.018) (0.026) (0.017) (0.025) (0.019) (0.026) (0.023) (0.037)   
Working status: Other (ref. Retired) 0.011 0.017  − 0.003  − 0.021  − 0.033* 0.080***  − 0.021 0.171*** n.s ***
  (0.013) (0.021) (0.013) (0.020) (0.014) (0.021) (0.018) (0.031)   
Own income  − 0.003 0.044** 0.008 0.049* 0.019  − 0.016 0.022  − 0.103*** n.s ***
  (0.015) (0.024) (0.015) (0.025) (0.015) (0.024) (0.022) (0.037)   
Chronic conditions 0.006  − 0.020 0.019  − 0.025  − 0.014 0.015 0.052*  − 0.038 n.s n.s
  (0.014) (0.022) (0.013) (0.023) (0.016) (0.023) (0.020) (0.039)   
Number of grandchildren  − 0.001  − 0.013*** 0.002  − 0.012*** 0.006***  − 0.014*** 0.002  − 0.009* n.s n.s
  (0.001) (0.003) (0.001) (0.003) (0.002) (0.003) (0.003) (0.005)   
Living proximity with grandchildren: < 1 km (ref. > 16 km)  − 0.421*** 0.333***  − 0.376*** 0.334***  − 0.305*** 0.317***  − 0.362*** 0.350*** n.s n.s
  (0.021) (0.016) (0.019) (0.016) (0.019) (0.017) (0.023) (0.022)   
between 1 to 16 km (ref. > 16 km)  − 0.381*** 0.218***  − 0.343*** 0.254***  − 0.273*** 0.212***  − 0.356*** 0.310*** n.s n.s
  (0.021) (0.017) (0.019) (0.017) (0.020) (0.017) (0.023) (0.022)   
Observations 5230 5230 5516 5516 5031 5031 2754 2754   
  1. Family and Social Subjects (FSS) Survey, ISTAT
  2. n.s. not significant
  3. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01