Skip to main content

Table 5 Visual summary of main results (RQ1 and RQ2)

From: A change is (not) gonna come: a 20-year overview of Italian grandparent–grandchild exchanges

Variables Change in the structure (1998 vs 2016) Change in the association (1998 vs 2016)
Coresidence with at least 1 grandchild Contacts with at least 1 grandchild Grandchild caregiving
   Yes Daily Holidays Parents work
Coresidence with at least 1 grandchild      
Contacts with at least 1 grandchild ***     
Grandchild caregiving      
 Never ***     
 Parents work ***     
 Occasional ***     
 Holidays      
 Women      
Age class      
 < 49      
 50–59 (ref.) ***     
 60–74 *** ***    
 75 +  *** ***    
Education      
 High school diploma ***   *** *** ***
Marital status      
 Married (ref.) ***     
 Widow *** ***   *  
 Divorced/separated/Never married *** **   *  
Number of grandchildren (Mean; SD) *** ***    
Macro-region of residence      
 North (ref.)      
 Centre ***    ***  
 South **     
Working status      
 At work *     
 Other ***     ***
 Retired (ref.) ***     
Own income      ***
 Yes      
Chronic disease ***     
Living proximity      
 < 1 KM (included coresidence) ***     
 Between 1 to 16 KM ***   **   
 > 16 KM (ref.) ***     
  1. if in 2016 the predicted value is lower than in 1998
  2. if in 2016 the predicted value is higher than in 1998
  3. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01