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Table 6 Weighted descriptive characteristics of respondents with grandchildren younger than 13 years by year

From: A change is (not) gonna come: a 20-year overview of Italian grandparent–grandchild exchanges

N 1998 2003 2009 2016
5451 5789 5199 2995
Coresidence with at least 1 grandchild 3.14 2.61 2.68 2.83
Contacts with at least 1 grandchild     
 Daily 52.37 49.63 47.68 44.81
Grandchild caregiving     
 Never 21.58 22.20 17.64 17.94
 Parents work 29.50 33.39 34.48 39.29
 Occasional 39.75 35.98 37.74 34.08
 Holidays 9.17 8.42 10.13 8.67
 Women 57.38 56.34 57.15 55.43
Age class     
 < 49 3.55 2.99 2.79 2.37
 50–59 (ref.) 25.95 23.65 20.68 19.35
 60–74 61.71 61.61 60.43 63.94
 75 +  8.79 11.75 16.11 14.34
Marital status     
 Married 79.90 80.07 79.43 78.73
 Widow 17.90 15.88 15.10 13.23
 Divorced/separated/never married 2.81 4.05 5.47 8.04
Macro-region of residence     
 North 43.88 45.66 45.40 45.13
 Centre 19.85 19.48 19.80 19.77
 South 36.27 34.87 34.79 35.10
Education     
 High school diploma 10.69 12.84 17.20 28.42
Working status     
 At work 14.41 15.33 14.50 16.97
 Other 50.95 54.12 52.06 54.01
 Retired 34.64 30.55 33.44 29.02
Own income     
 Yes 79.76 80.64 80.20 81.15
Chronic disease 10.37 9.86 8.96 5.96
Number of grandchildren (Mean; SD) 3.03 (2.45) 2.90 (2.13) 2.83 (2.01) 2.54 (1.55)
Living proximity     
 < 1 km (included coresidence) 49.52 48.89 43.55 39.67
 Between 1 to 16 km 37.35 37.12 39.05 40.00
 > 16 km 13.13 13.99 17.39 20.33
  1. Family and Social Subjects (FSS) Survey, ISTAT