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Table 5 Relative risk ratios from discrete-time multinomial logistic regression of student status by profile

From: The academic performance of students with a migrant background: evidence from a cohort enrolled at Sapienza University of Rome

BA degree vs. still enrolled Italians SGs (1) SGs (2) ISs (1) ISs (2)
RRR RRR RRR RRR RRR
Gender      
M Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref Ref.
W 1.06** 1.29* 1.26 1.41 1.22
Age 0.94*** 0.94* 0.95 1.00 1.00
High-school diplomaa,b      
Other Italian high schools Ref. Ref. Ref.   
Lyceum 1.53*** 1.57** 1.64**   
Geographical area of citizenship      
Romania    Ref.   Ref.
Eastern Europe    1.02   0.82
non-Western countries    0.72*   0.54*
Western countries    n.r.   n.r.
Time in months      
1–33 0.02*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.03*** 0.03***
34–39 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
40–45 0.86*** 0.86 0.88 0.94 0.94
46–51 0.67*** 0.94 0.96 1.81** 1.82**
52–57 0.45*** 0.44** 0.45** 0.78 0.79
58–63 0.35*** 0.44** 0.45** 0.59 0.61
64–72 0.20*** 0.31*** 0.32*** 0.48** 0.48**
Drop-out vs. still enrolled      
Gender      
M Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
W 1.09** 0.91 0.89 0.78 0.86
Age 0.99** 0.97 0.97 1.02 1.03
High-school diplomaa,b      
Other Italian high schools Ref. Ref. Ref.   
Lyceum 0.81*** 0.69* 0.69*   
Geographical area of citizenship      
Romania    Ref.   Ref.
Eastern Europe    n.r.   2.42
non-Western countries    0.70   2.89*
Western countries    n.r.   n.r.
Time in months      
1–33 2.38*** 1.78 1.77 3.28* 3.27*
34–39 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
40–45 0.52*** 0.37 0.37 1.07 1.06
46–51 1.11 0.39 0.40 2.35 2.34
52–57 0.43*** 0.21 0.21 0.01 0.01
58–63 1.09 1.11 1.11 1.99 1.98
64–72 0.76** 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.34
Transfer vs. still enrolled      
Gender      
M Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
W 0.86 2.42 1.23 1.17 1.85
Age 0.92*** 1.02 1.17 1.01 0.99
High-school diplomaa,b      
Other Italian high schools Ref. Ref. Ref.   
Lyceum 1.60*** 0.02 0.03   
Geographical area of citizenship      
Romania    Ref.   Ref.
Eastern Europe    n.r.   0.11
non-Western countries    0.06   0.01
Western countries    n.r.   n.r.
Time in months      
1–33 1.29 1.02 1.04 0.47 0.47
34–39 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
40–45 0.04*** 0.94 0.93 0.01 0.01
46–51 0.57* 0.95 1.06 0.82 0.78
52–57 0.01 0.89 1.08 0.02 0.02
58–63 0.70 0.86 1.24 0.01 0.01
64–72 0.23*** 0.82 1.56 0.02 0.06
  1. The model controls also for place of domicile at enrolment, disciplinary area, scholarship and diploma grade (only for Italians and SGs)
  2. SGs/ISs (1): models do not control for origin area; SGs/ISs (2): models control for origin area
  3. Source Authors’ elaboration on administrative data of Sapienza University of Rome
  4. SGs second-generation students; ISs international students; n.r. coefficients are not reported because computed on less than 10 observations
  5. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001
  6. aComputed only for Italians and second generations
  7. b“Classical and Scientific Lyceum” and “Other Lyceum” have been merged into “Lyceum” due to the small sample size of “Other Lyceum”