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Table 2 Socio-demographic characteristics of the homeless using services in Milan

From: Residence registration to cope with homelessness: evidence from a qualitative research study in Milan

Variables Milan
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)
2008 2013 2014 2018
All; n (%) All; n (%) All; n (%) Without residence certificate; n (%) With residence certificate; n (%) All; n (%)
N 1152 2106 825 216 599 2608
Gender
 Women 164 (14.2) 299 (14.2) 101 (12.2) 22 (10.2) 77 (12.8) 378 (14.5)
Country of birth       
 Italy 511 (44.4) 478 (22.7) 261 (31.6) n.d 254 (42.2) 704 (27)
 Other 641 (55.6) 1628 (77.3)     1904 (73)
  European Union N/A N/A 156 (18.9) 64 (29.6) 91 (15.2) N/A
  North Africa N/A N/A 131 (15.9) 45 (20.8) 86 (14.4) N/A
  Sub-Saharan Africa N/A N/A 114 (13.8) 32 (14.8) 80 (13.4) N/A
  South America N/A N/A 46 (5.6) 18 (8.3) 26 (4.4) N/A
  Middle East N/A N/A 20 (2.4) n.d 11 (1.9) N/A
  Other N/A N/A 97 (11.8) 35 (16.2) 51 (8.5) N/A
Age groupsa
  < 18 N/A 297 (14.1) N/A N/A N/A 17 (1)
 18–34 N/A 519 (24.6) 249 (30.2) 91 (42.1) 154 (25.7) 600 (23)
 35–54 N/A 454 (21.6) 365 (44.2) 97 (44.9) 265 (44.3) 1390 (53)
 55–64 N/A 628 (29.8) 142 (17.2) 28 (13) 120 (20.0) 418 (16)
 65+  N/A 208 (9.9) 69 (8.4) n.d 60 (10.0) 183 (7)
Without residence certificateb N/A 637 (30.24) 216 (26.18)    1017 (39.00)
 Source fRDB fRDB ISTAT fRDB
  1. ISTAT data relate to the Detection of Extreme Poverty (Year 2014) survey. Processing was carried out at the ISTAT Laboratory for the Analysis of Elementary Data in compliance with legislation on statistical law enforcement and the protection of personal data. The survey was conducted to investigate the living conditions of people in extreme poverty. The survey covered all individuals who, living in the street, had used at least one free aid service such as a social canteen or a dormitory in one of the 158 municipalities selected on the basis of their demographic dimension (more than 30,000 inhabitants). Children, citizens of Rome, women living in protected housing for domestic violence, and people living in smaller municipalities were excluded from the survey
  2. fRDB data relate to a point-in-time count sampling procedure conducted in Milan in 2018 by Fondazione Rodolfo De Benedetti and Bocconi University. This sampling provides a picture of the homeless population living in Milan by collecting information on gender, age, and citizenship status in a single night
  3. Notice that only data coming from the same source can be compared. Namely, those from fRDB 2008, 2013 and 2018
  4. n.d., Observations less than 10 cannot be reported to protect personal data
  5. N/A, not available
  6. aData for 2013 are available only for homeless interviewed in dormitories (source: fRDB). The age class is slightly different from other sources/years and is broken down as follows: > 25; 25‒34; 35‒44; 45‒60; 60+ 
  7. bIn the ISTAT survey, the question related to the residence certificate presents 31 missing answers in the Italy sample and 10 in the Milan subsample
  8. The number of observations for 2003, 2008, and 2018 have been calculated by multiplying the total with the percentage published by fRDB