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Table 6 Odds ratios and standard errors from multilevel random intercept logistic regression analysis assessing associations between empowerment indicators and the personal support to FGM/C continuation

From: The relationship between women’s individual empowerment and the support to female genital cutting continuation: a study on 7 African countries

Covariates Odds ratio Std.Err
Highest educational level: none (ref.) (ref.)
Highest educational level: primary 0.734*** 0.024
Highest educational level: secondary 0.590*** 0.019
Highest educational level: tertiary 0.385*** 0.018
Experience of FGM/C: no (ref.) (ref.)
Experience of FGM/C: yes 8.221*** 0.285
Experience of FGM/C: unsure 3.196*** 0.232
Age at first cohabitation 0.988*** 0.003
Intimate partner violence justification: never (ref.) (ref.)
Intimate partner violence justification: sometimes 1.505*** 0.040
Intimate partner violence justification: often or always 1.737*** 0.045
The ideal number of children 1.003*** 0.000
The person who usually decides on visits to family or relatives: respondent and husband/partner (ref.) (ref.)
The person who usually decides on visits to family or relatives: respondent alone 1.104** 0.035
The person who usually decides on visits to family or relatives: someone else 1.163*** 0.029
Unmet need for contraception: yes (ref.) (ref.)
Unmet need for contraception: no need 0.949 0.031
Unmet need for contraception: using method 1.004 0.025
Respondent Works: no (ref.) (ref.)
Respondent works: yes, unpaid work 0.958 0.040
Respondent works: yes, paid work 0.980 0.025
\(\sqrt{\widehat{\psi }}\) estimated residual standard deviation of the random intercept 0.574 0.059
\(\rho\) estimated residual intraclass correlation of the latent responses 0.091 0.017
Number of observations 73,985
Number of groups 59
Log-likelihood − 32,005.862
AIC 64,073.72
  1. LR test of rho = 0: chibar2(01) = 1796.03 Prob ≥ chibar2 = 0.000
  2. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001
  3. The model controls for age, country, FGM/C regional prevalence within the country, number of daughters at home, and religion. The full model, including also controls is available in Additional file 1: Table S1