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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of the study sample at baseline. Source: Authors’ analysis of the Harmonised SHARE Waves 4–5

From: The impact of grandchild care provision on grandparents’ depressive symptoms across Europe using multi-level analysis: do the grandchild caring patterns and the country’s economy matter?

Variables Total sample Non-carers Previous or less intensive carers New or more intensive carers Repeated carers F or χ2
N = 14,831 N = 6,298 N = 2,399 N = 2,125 N = 4,009
M (SD) or % M (SD) or % M (SD) or % M (SD) or % M (SD) or %
Outcome (baseline)
 Number of depressive symptoms 2.6 (2.3) 3.0 (2.4) 2.6 (2.3) 2.4 (2.2) 2.2 (2.0) 113***
Explanatory
Caring status between 2012 and 2014       
 Non-carers 42.5      
 Previous or less intensive carers 16.2      
 New or more intensive carers 14.3      
 Repeated carers 27.0      
Factors (baseline)
 GDP (log) 10.4 (0.4) 10.4 (0.4) 10.4 (0.4) 10.3 (0.4) 10.5 (0.4) 65***
Control (baseline)
 Age (centred at 60) 9.8 (9.3) 15.4 (9.0) 8.9 (8.2) 6.7 (8.2) 5.6 (6.9) 1385***
 Gender (female) 64.0 65.4 66.1 64.0 66.5 4
 Educational attainment       518***
 Less than lower secondary 44.0 54.6 43.1 37.7 33.9  
 Upper secondary and vocational training 37.3 32.1 37.9 40.7 42.0  
 Tertiary 18.7 13.3 19.0 21.6 24.1  
 Currently married or partnered 62.0 43.6 62.3 65.4 70.1 828***
 Current employed or self-employed 23.8 12.3 23.5 32.6 31.1 668***
Annual household income (log) 9.2 (1.2) 9.0 (1.2) 9.2 (1.4) 9.1 (1.1) 9.4 (1.2) 14***
 Number of grandchildren 3.9 (2.8) 4.1 (3.0) 4.1 (2.8) 3.9 (2.7) 3.9 (2.5) 10***
 Whether living with children 12.5 12.1 12.8 13.4 12.2 3
 Self-reported health (1–5, excellent to poor) 3.3 (1.0) 3.6 (1.0) 3.3 (1.1) 3.2 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 311***
 ADL functional status (0–6, excellent to poor) 0.3 (0.8) 0.5 (1.1) 0.2 (0.7) 0.2 (0.6) 0.1 (0.4) 215***
 IADL functional status (0–5, excellent to poor) 0.2 (0.8) 0.5 (1.1) 0.1 (0.6) 0.1 (0.5) 0.04 (0.3) 297***
Country 467***
 Estonia 100 51.8 14.8 16.1 17.3  
 Spain 100 50.5 19.4 12.4 17.7  
 Austria 100 48.3 12.9 13.9 24.9  
 Slovenia 100 45.6 17.4 13.4 23.6  
 Germany 100 44.1 14.4 14.3 27.2  
 Czech Republic 100 40.3 17.7 18.1 23.9  
 France 100 40.3 15.4 12.6 31.7  
 Italy 100 38.9 17.0 16.0 28.1  
 Switzerland 100 38.4 18.0 12.4 31.2  
 Belgium 100 36.9 15.3 11.6 36.2  
 Sweden 100 36.2 19.5 13.9 30.4  
 Denmark 100 35.3 13.4 14.2 37.1  
 Netherlands 100 30.6 17.9 14.1 37.4  
  1. M mean, SD standard deviations, ADL Activities of Daily Living, IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
  2. *** significant at the 0.1% level