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Table 3 Multi-level estimates of grandchild caring patterns on the depressive symptoms of grandparents, 2012–2018. Source: Authors’ analysis of the Harmonised SHARE Waves 4–7

From: The impact of grandchild care provision on grandparents’ depressive symptoms across Europe using multi-level analysis: do the grandchild caring patterns and the country’s economy matter?

  Intercept-only model Random-intercept models Random-intercept models with cross-level interactions
Response: Depressive symptoms Model 1:
Full sample
Model 2:
Full sample
Model 3: Grandfathers Model 4: Grandmothers Model 5:
Full sample
Model 6: Grandfathers Model 7: Grandmothers
Parameter Estimate Std. Err Estimate Std. Err Estimate Std. Err Estimate Std. Err Estimate Std. Err Estimate Std. Err Estimate Std. Err
Fixed part
 β0 Intercept 2.61*** 0.16 1.54 2.16 1.04 1.70 2.69** 2.54 2.49 2.18 1.48* 1.75 3.75*** 2.57
 β1 Previous or less intensive carers (ref: non-carers) − 0.07** 0.03 − 0.08* 0.04 − 0.06 0.04 − 2.59*** 0.63 − 1.09** 0.05 − 2.76*** 0.85
 β2 New or more intensive carers (ref: non-carers) − 0.03 0.03 − 0.04 0.05 − 0.03 0.04 − 1.34* 0.76 − 0.98*** 0.44 − 1.42*** 1.01
 β3 Repeated carers (ref: non-carers) − 0.11 0.03 − 0.12** 0.04 − 0.10* 0.04 − 0.74 0.67 − 0.69*** 0.42 − 1.46*** 0.87
 β4 Age (centred at 60) − 0.02*** 0.00 − 0.03*** 0.01 − 0.02*** 0.01 − 0.02** 0.01 − 0.03*** 0.01 − 0.02*** 0.01
 β5 Age squared    0.001*** 0.00 0.001*** 0.00 0.001* 0.00 0.001*** 0.01 0.001*** 0.00 0.001*** 0.00
 β6 Gender (ref: male) 0.69*** 0.03 0.69*** 0.03
 β7 Marital status (ref: not married) − 0.21*** 0.03 − 0.30*** 0.04 − 0.18*** 0.03 − 0.21*** 0.03 − 0.32*** 0.04 − 0.18*** 0.03
 β8 Education attainment: Upper secondary (ref: less than lower secondary) − 0.19*** 0.03 − 0.12** 0.04 − 0.23** 0.04 − 0.19*** 0.03 − 0.12** 0.01 − 0.23*** 0.04
 β9 Education attainment: Tertiary (ref: less than lower secondary) − 0.20*** 0.04 − 0.14** 0.05 − 0.25** 0.05 − 0.20*** 0.04 − 0.14** 0.01 − 0.25*** 0.05
 β10 Currently working (ref: not working) − 0.07* 0.03 − 0.04 0.05 − 0.10 0.04 − 0.07* 0.03 − 0.07 0.05 − 0.10* 0.04
 β11 Number of grandchildren 0.01** 0.00 0.02** 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01* 0.00 0.02*** 0.01 0.01 0.01
 β12 Co-residing with children (ref: no) 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.05 − 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.05 − 0.02 0.04
 β13 Self-rated health 0.70*** 0.01 0.62*** 0.02 0.75*** 0.02 0.70*** 0.01 0.63*** 0.02 0.75*** 0.02
 β14 ADL functional status 0.26*** 0.02 0.28*** 0.03 0.24*** 0.02 0.26*** 0.02 0.29*** 0.03 0.24*** 0.02
 β15 IADL functional status 0.18*** 0.02 0.17*** 0.03 0.18*** 0.02 0.17*** 0.02 0.16*** 0.03 0.18*** 0.02
 β16 Household income − 0.06** 0.02 − 0.10*** 0.03 − 0.09*** 0.03 − 0.06** 0.02 − 0.10*** 0.03 − 0.09** 0.03
 β17 GDP − 0.14* 0.08 − 0.70** 0.28 − 0.20* 0.11 − 0.23* 0.10 − 0.15* 0.08 − 0.30** 0.24
 β18 GDP X Previous or less intensive carers 0.24*** 0.03 0.13** 0.05 0.26*** 0.04
 β19 GDP X New or more intensive carers 0.11** 0.04 0.12* 0.06 0.14* 0.05
 β20 GDP X Repeated carers 0.12* 0.04 0.08 0.05 0.13* 0.05
Random part               
\({\sigma }_{\mathrm{v}0}^{2}\) Country variance 0.37 0.14 0.10 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.13 0.05 0.10 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.13 0.06
\({\sigma }_{\upmu }^{2}\) Individual variance 2.46 0.03 1.56 0.03 1.27 0.05 1.74 0.05 1.56 0.03 1.26 0.05 1.74 0.04
\({\sigma }_{e}^{2}\) Residual variance 2.56 0.02 2.25 0.03 1.97 0.04 2.44 0.04 2.25 0.03 1.97 0.04 2.44 0.03
Intraclass Coefficient (ICC)               
 Country 6.9% 2.4% 1.8% 3.1%
43.5%
2.5% 1.8% 3.1%
 Individual 52.5% 42.5% 40.2% 42.4% 40.1% 43.4%
 AIC 282,393 165,796 59,410 106,067 165,799 59,419 106,074
 BIC 282,430 165,968 59,555 106,221 165,997 59,587 106,253
 Number of countries 13 13 13 13 13 13 13
 Number of respondents 24,656 24,656 9,524 15,132 24,656 9,524 15,132
 Number of observations 66,504 66,504 25,102 41,402 66,504 25,102 41,402
  1. All models were based on Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) estimation. Std Err: standard error; AIC: Akaike Information Criterion; BIC: Bayesian Information Criterion; Model 1 was based on the intercept-only model, Models 2–4 were based on the random-intercept models, and Models 5–7 were based on the random-intercept models with cross-level interactions. AIC and BIC were provided for information only and were not comparable between models under REML estimates.
  2. *Significant at the 5% level; ** Significant at the 1% level; *** Significant at the 0.1% level.