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Table 1 Employment status and transition to motherhood. Cox models, HRs are reported with standard errors in brackets

From: Female employment and first childbirth in Italy: what news?

  Italy (whole country) Northern/Central Italy Southern Italy
HR (std. error) HR (std. error) HR (std. error)
Calendar time (ref. before 1980)       
1980–1989 0.621
(0.026)
*** 0.557
(0.031)
*** 0.721
(0.047)
***
1990–1999 0.434
(0.019)
*** 0.401
(0.023)
*** 0.481
(0.034)
***
2000–2009 0.454
(0.021)
*** 0.452
(0.027)
*** 0.443
(0.033)
***
2010–2016 0.427
(0.024)
*** 0.433
(0.032)
*** 0.415
(0.038)
***
Parental education (ref. primary)       
 Lower secondary 0.882
(0.029)
*** 0.901
(0.038)
** 0.851
(0.047)
***
 Upper secondary/tertiary 0.803
(0.032)
*** 0.827
(0.041)
*** 0.753
(0.053)
***
Area of resid. (ref. North/Centre)       
 South 1.033
(0.029)
     
Place of birth (ref. Italy)       
 Foreign country 1.345
(0.053)
*** 1.473
(0.068)
*** 1.071
(0.082)
 
Ever migrated (ref. no)       
 Yes 0.860
(0.079)
* 0.955
(0.118)
  0.759
(0.107)
*
Education (ref. upper secondary)       
 Still studying 0.324
(0.017)
*** 0.312
(0.022)
*** 0.352
(0.029)
***
 Up to lower secondary 1.233
(0.039)
*** 1.245
(0.051)
*** 1.226
(0.062)
***
 Tertiary 1.026
(0.044)
  0.955 (0.049)   1.149
(0.087)
*
Employment (ref. not employed)       
 Employed 0.988
(0.028)
  1.022
(0.048)
  0.949
(0.033)
*
  1. Source: Author’s elaboration on FSS 2016 data
  2. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01. Sample sizes: Italy = 9327; Northern/Central Italy = 5669; Southern Italy = 3658