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Table 3 Employment status and transition to motherhood over time. Cox models, HRs are reported with standard errors in brackets

From: Female employment and first childbirth in Italy: what news?

  Italy (whole country) Northern/Central Italy Southern Italy
HR (std. error) HR (std. error) HR (std. error)
Parental education (ref. primary)
 Lower secondary 0.879 (0.029) *** 0.898 (0.038) ** 0.851 (0.047) ***
 Upper secondary / tertiary 0.803 (0.032) *** 0.827 (0.041) *** 0.754 (0.054) ***
Area of resid. (ref. North/Centre)       
 South 1.032 (0.029)      
Place of birth (ref. Italy)       
 Foreign country 1.343 (0.053) *** 1.475 (0.068) *** 1.072 (0.082)  
Ever migrated (ref. no)       
 Yes 0.858 (0.080) * 0.955 (0.118)   0.761 (0.108) *
Education (ref. upper secondary)       
 Still studying 0.327 (0.017) *** 0.313 (0.022) *** 0.355 (0.029) ***
 Up to lower secondary 1.238 (0.039) *** 1.250 (0.051) *** 1.229 (0.062) ***
 Tertiary 1.019 (0.044)   0.955 (0.049)   1.140 (0.086) *
Employed (ref. not employed) 0.833 (0.052) *** 0.835 (0.066) ** 0.865 (0.101)  
Calendar time (ref. before 1980)
 1980–1989 0.598 (0.033) *** 0.508 (0.042) *** 0.698 (0.052) ***
 1990–1999 0.401 (0.023) *** 0.365 (0.031) *** 0.454 (0.037) ***
 2000–2009 0.397 (0.025) *** 0.393 (0.036) *** 0.428 (0.037) ***
 2010–2016 0.343 (0.028) *** 0.364 (0.044) *** 0.360 (0.040) ***
Employed * 1980–89 1.101 (0.089)   1.180 (0.109) * 1.141 (0.169)  
Employed * 1990–99 1.201 (0.098) ** 1.186 (0.125) * 1.238 (0.184)  
Employed * 2000–09 1.319 (0.108) *** 1.268 (0.136) ** 1.637 (0.304)  
Employed * 2010–16 1.501 (0.153) *** 1.322 (0.184) ** 1.481 (0.253) **
  1. Source: Author’s elaboration on FSS 2016 data
  2. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01. Sample sizes are the same as in Table 1.