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Table 4 Employment status and transition to motherhood, only women who have never worked for more than 6 months in the macro-area opposite to that they live in at the time of the interview. Cox models, HRs are reported with standard errors in brackets

From: Female employment and first childbirth in Italy: what news?

  Italy (whole country) Northern/Central Italy Southern Italy
HR (std. error) HR (std. error) HR (std. error)
Calendar time (ref. before 1980)
 1980–1989 0.623 (0.026) *** 0.555 (0.031) *** 0.731 (0.048) ***
 1990–1999 0.433 (0.019) *** 0.398 (0.023) *** 0.483 (0.034) ***
 2000–2009 0.457 (0.022) *** 0.447 (0.027) *** 0.457 (0.035) ***
 2010–2016 0.422 (0.024) *** 0.421 (0.031) *** 0.416 (0.038) ***
Parental education (ref. primary)
 Lower secondary 0.883 (0.030) *** 0.898 (0.038) ** 0.854 (0.047) ***
 Upper secondary/tertiary 0.799 (0.033) *** 0.820 (0.041) *** 0.754 (0.055) ***
Area of resid. (ref. North/Centre)
 South 1.038 (0.030)      
Place of birth (ref. Italy)
 Foreign country 1.346 (0.054) *** 1.493 (0.070) *** 1.071 (0.082)  
Education (ref. upper secondary)       
 Still studying 0.331 (0.018) *** 0.317 (0.023) *** 0.360 (0.031) ***
 Up to lower secondary 1.230 (0.039) *** 1.235 (0.051) *** 1.228 (0.062) ***
 Tertiary 1.026 (0.044)   0.967 (0.051)   1.120 (0.087)  
Employment (ref. not employed)
 Employed 0.990 (0.028)   1.020 (0.048)   0.948 (0.033) *
  1. Source: Author’s elaboration on FSS 2016 data
  2. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01. Sample sizes: Italy = 9148; Northern/Central Italy = 5582; Southern Italy = 3566