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Table 5 Employment status and transition to motherhood over time, only women who have never worked for more than 6 months in the macro-area opposite to that they live in at the time of the interview. Cox models, HRs are reported with standard errors in brackets

From: Female employment and first childbirth in Italy: what news?

  Italy (whole country) Northern/Central Italy Southern Italy
HR (std. error) HR (std. error) HR (std. error)
Employed (ref. not employed) 0.831 (0.052) *** 0.836 (0.066) ** 0.865 (0.101)  
Calendar time (ref. before 1980)
 1980–1989 0.598 (0.033) *** 0.504 (0.042) *** 0.704 (0.053) ***
 1990–1999 0.400 (0.024) *** 0.362 (0.031) *** 0.458 (0.037) ***
 2000–2009 0.401 (0.025) *** 0.392 (0.036) *** 0.436 (0.038) ***
 2010–2016 0.336 (0.028) *** 0.344 (0.042) *** 0.361 (0.041) ***
Employed * 1980–1989 1.110 (0.090)   1.189 (0.126)   1.174 (0.169)  
Employed * 1990–1999 1.201 (0.099) ** 1.189 (0.127) * 1.246 (0.190)  
Employed * 2000–2009 1.320 (0.109) *** 1.253 (0.135) ** 1.222 (0.184)  
Employed * 2010–2016 1.526 (0.158) *** 1.372 (0.194) ** 1.502 (0.265) **
  1. Models control for parents’ education, place of birth, respondent’s education
  2. Source: Author’s elaboration on FSS 2016 data
  3. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01. Sample sizes are the same as in Table 4