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Table 6 Employment status and transition to motherhood, only native women. Cox models, HRs are reported with standard errors in brackets

From: Female employment and first childbirth in Italy: what news?

  Italy (whole country) Northern/Central Italy Southern Italy
HR (std. error)   HR (std. error)   HR (std. error)  
Calendar time (ref. before 1980)       
 1980–1989 0.581 (0.026) *** 0.498 (0.029) *** 0.697 (0.047) ***
 1990–1999 0.391 (0.019) *** 0.345 (0.022) *** 0.450 (0.033) ***
 2000–2009 0.415 (0.021) *** 0.398 (0.027) *** 0.420 (0.033) ***
 2010–2016 0.380 (0.023) *** 0.363 (0.029) *** 0.401 (0.038) ***
Parental education (ref. primary)       
 Lower secondary 0.880 (0.031) *** 0.897 (0.041) ** 0.854 (0.049) ***
 Upper secondary/tertiary 0.784 (0.035) *** 0.811 (0.044) *** 0.738 (0.056) ***
Area of resid. (ref. North/Centre)       
 South 1.081 (0.033) *     
Ever migrated (ref. no)       
 Yes 0.887 (0.086)   1.047 (0.137)   0.762 (0.107) *
Education (ref. upper secondary)       
 Still studying 0.315 (0.019) *** 0.308 (0.025) *** 0.338 (0.030) ***
 Up to lower secondary 1.243 (0.042) *** 1.264 (0.056) *** 1.226 (0.066) ***
 Tertiary 1.009 (0.045)   0.942 (0.053)   1.132 (0.088) *
Employment (ref. not employed)       
 Employed 1.020 (0.032)   1.042 (0.043)   0.988 (0.033)  
  1. Source: Author’s elaboration on FSS 2016 data
  2. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01. Sample sizes: Italy = 8214; Northern/Central Italy = 4861; Southern Italy = 3353