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Table 8 Employment status and transition to motherhood with control for time-varying union status. Cox models, HRs are reported with standard errors in brackets

From: Female employment and first childbirth in Italy: what news?

  Italy (whole country) Northern/Central Italy Southern Italy
HR (std. error) HR (std. error) HR (std. error)
Calendar time (ref. before 1980)
 1980–1989 0.645 (0.027) *** 0.582 (0.032) *** 0.726 (0.048) ***
 1990–1999 0.561 (0.025) *** 0.501 (0.029) *** 0.636 (0.045) ***
 2000–2009 0.588 (0.028) *** 0.540 (0.033) *** 0.608 (0.047) ***
 2010–2016 0.591 (0.034) *** 0.538 (0.039) *** 0.617 (0.057) ***
Parental education (ref. primary)
 Lower secondary 0.838 (0.028) *** 0.856 (0.037) *** 0.847 (0.046) ***
 Upper secondary/tertiary 0.767 (0.031) *** 0.794 (0.040) *** 0.782 (0.056) ***
Area of resid. (ref. North/Centre)
 South 1.029 (0.031)      
Place of birth (ref. Italy)       
 Foreign country 1.087 (0.043) ** 1.300 (0.061) *** 0.827 (0.064) **
Ever migrated (ref. no)
 Yes 0.955 (0.079)   1.124 (0.139)   0.679 (0.096) **
Education (ref. upper secondary)
 Still studying 0.440 (0.024) *** 0.426 (0.031) *** 0.476 (0.041) ***
 Up to lower secondary 0.994 (0.032)   1.020 (0.042)   0.883 (0.046) **
 Tertiary 1.098 (0.047) ** 1.056 (0.055)   1.084 (0.082) *
Union status (ref. not in union)
 In union 13.894 (0.475) *** 10.800 (0.472) *** 21.075 (1.151) ***
Employment (ref. not employed)
 Employed 0.889 (0.028) ** 0.998 (0.047)   0.968 (0.046)  
  1. Source: Author’s elaboration on FSS 2016 data
  2. *p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01. Sample sizes: Italy = 9229; Northern/Central Italy = 5606; Southern Italy = 3623