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Table 9 Employment status and transition to motherhood over time with control for time-varying union status. Cox models, HRs are reported with standard errors in brackets

From: Female employment and first childbirth in Italy: what news?

  Italy (whole country) Northern/Central Italy Southern Italy
HR (std. error) HR (std. error) HR (std. error)
Employed (ref. not employed) 0.980 (0.061)   1.001 (0.079)   0.998 (0.116)  
Calendar time (ref. before 1980)
 1980–1989 0.665 (0.037) *** 0.605 (0.050) *** 0.713 (0.054) ***
 1990–1999 0.600 (0.035) *** 0.570 (0.049) *** 0.634 (0.052) ***
 2000–2009 0.666 (0.042) *** 0.636 (0.058) *** 0.734 (0.066) ***
 2010–2016 0.584 (0.048) *** 0.581 (0.071) *** 0.651 (0.075) ***
Employed * 1980–1989 0.972 (0.079)   0.994 (0.105)   1.101 (0.165)  
Employed * 1990–1999 1.001 (0.082)   1.091 (0.102)   1.074 (0.161)  
Employed * 2000–2009 1.089 (0.083) * 1.141 (0.112) * 0.790 (0.116)  
Employed * 2010–2016 1.310 (0.135) *** 1.230 (0.174) ** 1.158 (0.204)  
  1. Models control for parents’ education, place of birth, ever migrated, respondent’s education, union status
  2. Source: Author’s elaboration on FSS 2016 data
  3. *p<0.10; ** p<0.05; ***p<0.01. Sample sizes are the same as in Table 8