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Table 1 Percentage distribution of 233,763 births by maternal and child characteristics for India and its six state-regions

From: The effects of community clustering on under-five mortality in India: a parametric shared frailty modelling approach

  India North Central East Northeast West South
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Maternal characteristics
Age at first birth (in years)
Less than 18 53,340 (22.82) 7506 (17.24) 14,656 (22.08) 14,152 (28.69) 8617 (25.36) 3841 (22.77) 4568 (19.30)
19 to 24 144,235 [61.70] 27,898 [64.06] 44,110 [66.44] 29,861 [60.55] 17,808 [52.42] 10,262 [60.85] 14,296 [60.40]
15 to 29 29,557 [12.64] 6843 [15.71] 6525 [9.83] 4381 [8.88] 5551 [16.34] 2287 [13.56] 3970 [16.77]
30 and above 6631 (2.84) 1302 (2.99) 1095 (1.65) 926 (1.88) 1997 (5.88) 475 (2.82) 836 (3.53)
Level of schooling
No schooling 74,456 (31.85) 13,373 (30.71) 25,999 (39.16) 22,015 (44.64) 7047 (20.74) 2994 (17.75) 3028 (12.79)
Primary 34,097 (14.59) 5698 (13.08) 11,022 (16.60) 6798 (13.78) 6149 (18.10) 2296 (13.61) 2134 (9.02)
Secondary 103,976 (44.48) 18,995 (43.62) 23,894 (35.99) 18,094 (36.69) 18,613 (54.79) 9967 (59.10) 14,413 (60.89)
Higher 21,234 (9.08) 5483 (12.59) 5471 (8.24) 2413 (4.89) 2164 (6.37) 1608 (9.53) 4095 (17.30)
Marital status
Currently married 230,093 (98.43) 43,137 (99.05) 65,630 (98.86) 48,728 (98.80) 32,672 (96.17) 16,573 (98.27) 23,353 (98.66)
Not currently married 3670 (1.57) 412 (0.95) 756 (1.14) 592 (1.20) 1301 (3.83) 292 (1.73) 317 (1.34)
Wealth index
Poorest 63,473 (27.15) 5008 (11.50) 23,174 (34.91) 24,748 (50.18) 7071 (20.81) 2285 (13.55) 1187 (5.01)
Poorer 55,430 (23.71) 8227 (18.89) 15,947 (24.02) 12,109 (24.55) 11,362 (33.44) 3655 (21.67) 4130 (17.45)
Middle 46,161 (19.75) 9307 (21.37) 10,937 (16.47) 6713 (13.61) 8182 (24.08) 4077 (24.17) 6945 (29.34)
Richer 38,031 (16.27) 9359 (21.49) 8701 (13.11) 3974 (8.06) 5075 (14.94) 3832 (22.72) 7090 (29.95)
Richest 30,668 (13.12) 11,648 (26.75) 7627 (11.49) 1776 (3.60) 2283 (6.72) 3016 (17.88) 4318 (18.24)
Religion
Hindu 168,443 (72.06) 30,187 (69.32) 56,473 (85.07) 39,538 (80.17) 9575 (28.18) 13,755 (81.56) 18,915 (79.91)
Muslim 36,455 (15.59) 9251 (21.24) 9494 (14.30) 7414 (15.03) 4829 (14.21) 2087 (12.37) 3380 (14.28)
Christian 19,571 (8.37) 84 (0.19) 196 (0.30) 1016 (2.06) 16,733 (49.25) 200 (1.19) 1342 (5.67)
Others 9294 (3.98) 4027 (9.25) 223 (0.34) 1352 (2.74) 2836 (8.35) 823 (4.88) 33 (0.14)
Caste
Scheduled Caste 43,857 (18.76) 10,116 (23.23) 13,661 (20.58) 10,463 (21.21) 1906 (5.61) 2322 (13.77) 5389 (22.77)
Scheduled Tribe 48,962 (20.95) 4631 (10.63) 10,499 (15.82) 7734 (15.68) 20,723 (61.00) 3529 (20.92) 1846 (7.80)
Others 140,944 (60.29) 28,802 (66.14) 42,226 (63.61) 31,123 (63.10) 11,344 (33.39) 11,014 (65.31) 16,435 (69.43)
Child characteristics
Sex
Male 121,972 (52.18) 23,180 (53.23) 34,837 (52.48) 25,569 (51.84) 17,407 (51.24) 8805 (52.21) 12,174 (51.43)
Female 111,791 (47.82) 20,369 (46.77) 31,549 (47.52) 23,751 (48.16) 16,566 (48.76) 8060 (47.79) 11,496 (48.57)
Type of birth
Singleton birth 229,855 (98.33) 42,825 (98.34) 65,242 (98.28) 48,409 (98.15) 33,516 (98.65) 16,594 (98.39) 23,269 (98.31)
Multiple birth 3908 (1.67) 724 (1.66) 1144 (1.72) 911 (1.85) 457 (1.35) 271 (1.61) 401 (1.69)
Birth order
1 85,097 (36.40) 16,686 (38.32) 21,902 (32.99) 16,787 (34.04) 12,122 (35.68) 6897 (40.90) 10,703 (45.22)
2 71,527 (30.60) 13,901 (31.92) 19,176 (28.89) 14,290 (28.97) 9097 (26.78) 5836 (34.60) 9227 (38.98)
3 to 4 57,322 (24.52) 10,065 (23.11) 17,881 (26.93) 13,502 (27.38) 8905 (26.21) 3519 (20.87) 3450 (14.58)
5 and above 19,817 (8.48) 2897 (6.65) 7427 (11.19) 4741 (9.61) 3849 (11.33) 613 (3.63) 290 (1.23)
Birthsize
Less than average 33,759 (14.44) 5533 (12.71) 10,184 (15.34) 7102 (14.40) 6431 (18.93) 2259 (13.39) 2250 (9.51)
Average 160,057 (68.47) 32,769 (75.25) 46,990 (70.78) 33,524 (67.97) 21,874 (64.39) 10,354 (61.39) 14,546 (61.45)
Above average 39,947 (17.09) 5247 (12.05) 9212 (13.88) 8694 (17.63) 5668 (16.68) 4252 (25.21) 6874 (29.04)
Previous birth interval
First-order birth 85,779 (36.69) 16,856 (38.71) 22,056 (33.22) 16,909 (34.28) 12,201 (35.91) 6950 (41.21) 10,807 (45.66)
Less than 12 months 2638 (1.13) 464 (1.07) 988 (1.49) 613 (1.24) 266 (0.78) 120 (0.71) 187 (0.79)
12 to 23 months 37,184 (15.91) 7086 (16.27) 12,176 (18.34) 7759 (15.73) 4463 (13.14) 2381 (14.12) 3319 (14.02)
24 to 35 months 47,098 (20.15) 8444 (19.39) 14,796 (22.29) 10,480 (21.25) 6176 (18.18) 3257 (19.31) 3945 (16.67)
36 to 47 months 26,566 (11.36) 4706 (10.81) 7734 (11.65) 6223 (12.62) 3960 (11.66) 1825 (10.82) 2118 (8.95)
48 to 59 months 14,396 (6.16) 2569 (5.90) 3887 (5.86) 3229 (6.55) 2486 (7.32) 983 (5.83) 1242 (5.25)
60 to 85 months 12,852 (5.50) 2231 (5.12) 3184 (4.80) 2717 (5.51) 2660 (7.83) 849 (5.03) 1211 (5.12)
86 months and above 7250 (3.10) 1193 (2.74) 1565 (2.36) 1390 (2.82) 1761 (5.18) 500 (2.96) 841 (3.55)
Mode of delivery
Non-Caesarean 202,681 (86.70) 37,037 (85.05) 60,636 (91.34) 44,571 (90.37) 30,410 (89.51) 14,080 (83.49) 15,947 (67.37)
Caesarean 31,082 (13.30) 6512 (14.95) 5750 (8.66) 4749 (9.63) 3563 (10.49) 2785 (16.51) 7723 (32.63)
Assistance during delivery
Skilled personnel 181,262 (77.54) 36,600 (84.04) 48,430 (72.95) 36,749 (74.51) 22,057 (64.93) 14,761 (87.52) 22,665 (95.75)
Unskilled personnel 52,501 (22.46) 6949 (15.96) 17,956 (27.05) 12,571 (25.49) 11,916 (35.07) 2104 (12.48) 1005 (4.25)
History of sibling’s death
No 207,020 (88.56) 39,475 (90.65) 55,267 (83.25) 43,002 (87.19) 30,965 (91.15) 15,735 (93.30) 22,576 (95.38)
Yes 26,743 (11.44) 4074 (9.35) 11,119 (16.75) 6318 (12.81) 3008 (8.85) 1130 (6.70) 1094 (4.62)
Total 233,763 43,549 66,386 49,320 33,973 16,865 23,670
  1. Not currently married includes widowed, separated and divorced; skilled Personnel includes doctors, nurses, auxiliary nurse midwives, midwives, and lady health visitors