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Table 4 Hazard ratios of under-five mortality by maternal and child characteristics in India and its six state-regions

From: The effects of community clustering on under-five mortality in India: a parametric shared frailty modelling approach

  India North Central East
HR   95% CI HR   95% CI HR   95% CI HR   95% CI
Maternal characteristics
Age at first birth (in years)
Less than 18 1.08 ** 1.02 1.14 1.13   0.94 1.35 1.06 ** 1.01 1.11 1.03   0.88 1.20
19 to 24 0.98   0.92 1.05 1.14   0.97 1.33 0.94   0.84 1.05 0.96   0.83 1.11
25 to 29 ®                 
30 and above 1.09   0.95 1.24 1.33   0.98 1.82 1.07   0.82 1.38 1.24   0.92 1.66
Level of schooling
No schooling ®                 
Primary 1.02   0.96 1.08 1.03   0.89 1.19 0.98   0.90 1.07 1.07   0.95 1.21
Secondary 0.90 ** 0.85 0.94 0.85 * 0.75 0.98 0.92   0.85 1.01 0.89 * 0.80 0.98
Higher 0.70 ** 0.63 0.78 0.74 * 0.59 0.93 0.78 ** 0.66 0.92 0.64 ** 0.47 0.86
Marital status
Currently married ®                 
Not currently married 1.16 * 1.01 1.34 1.04   0.66 1.64 1.07   0.81 1.40 0.99   0.70 1.40
Wealth index
Poorest ®                 
Poorer 0.97   0.92 1.02 0.95   0.81 1.11 0.99   0.92 1.08 0.83 ** 0.74 0.92
Middle 0.89 ** 0.84 0.95 0.89   0.75 1.05 0.93   0.84 1.02 0.84 * 0.73 0.98
Richer 0.79 ** 0.73 0.86 0.83 * 0.69 0.99 0.84 ** 0.74 0.94 0.78 * 0.63 0.96
Richest 0.60 ** 0.55 0.67 0.61 ** 0.49 0.75 0.59 ** 0.50 0.69 0.51 ** 0.35 0.76
Religion
Hindu ®                 
Muslim 1.01   0.96 1.08 1.28 ** 1.10 1.47 0.97   0.88 1.07 0.86 * 0.76 0.98
Christian 0.87   0.77 1.01 1.84   0.76 4.44 0.77   0.38 1.55 0.92   0.69 1.24
Others 0.87   0.76 1.01 1.02   0.83 1.25 0.89   0.44 1.79 0.99   0.76 1.30
Caste
Scheduled Caste ®                 
Scheduled Tribe 0.95   0.89 1.02 0.87   0.73 1.03 0.99   0.89 1.11 0.94   0.82 1.08
Others 0.93 ** 0.88 0.98 0.89   0.79 1.01 0.98   0.91 1.06 0.91   0.82 1.01
Child characteristics
Sex
Male ®                 
Female 0.86 ** 0.83 0.89 0.94   0.85 1.03 0.90 ** 0.85 0.96 0.83 ** 0.76 0.90
Type of birth
Singleton birth ®                 
Multiple birth 4.26 ** 3.93 4.62 4.48 ** 3.64 5.51 4.83 ** 4.27 5.46 4.28 ** 3.62 5.04
Birth order
1 ®                 
2 1.12   0.93 1.34 1.12   0.75 1.68 1.00   0.73 1.36 1.13   0.76 1.66
3 to 4 1.09   0.90 1.31 1.09   0.71 1.68 0.97   0.70 1.35 1.09   0.72 1.65
5 and above 1.12   0.92 1.36 1.15   0.73 1.80 1.06   0.76 1.48 1.06   0.69 1.62
Birthsize
Less than average 2.17 ** 2.07 2.27 2.16 ** 1.93 2.42 1.97 ** 1.83 2.12 2.18 ** 1.98 2.40
Average ®                 
Above average 1.21 ** 1.15 1.28 1.29 ** 1.12 1.50 1.34 ** 1.22 1.46 1.12   0.99 1.26
Previous birth interval
First-order birth 2.27 ** 1.87 2.76 2.04 ** 1.31 3.18 2.28 ** 1.64 3.19 2.49 ** 1.65 3.76
Less than 12 months 3.54 ** 3.14 3.98 4.09 ** 3.05 5.49 3.73 ** 3.10 4.48 3.25 ** 2.52 4.20
12 to 23 months 1.77 ** 1.64 1.92 1.86 ** 1.52 2.28 2.02 ** 1.78 2.29 1.69 ** 1.44 1.98
24 to 35 months 1.14 ** 1.05 1.24 1.34 ** 1.09 1.65 1.26 ** 1.10 1.43 1.08   0.91 1.27
36 to 47 months ®                 
48 to 59 months 1.01   0.91 1.14 0.88   0.64 1.21 1.08   0.89 1.29 1.03   0.82 1.29
60 to 85 months 1.19 ** 1.07 1.34 1.15   0.85 1.55 1.24 * 1.03 1.50 1.16   0.91 1.47
86 months and above 1.76 ** 1.56 2.00 1.72 ** 1.24 2.39 1.67 ** 1.34 2.09 1.70 ** 1.30 2.24
Mode of delivery
Non-Caesarean ®                 
Caesarean 0.89 ** 0.83 0.95 0.82 * 0.70 0.96 1.03   0.92 1.17 0.84 * 0.71 0.99
Assistance during delivery
Skilled personnel ®                 
Unskilled personnel 1.21 ** 1.16 1.27 1.11   0.98 1.25 1.17 ** 1.10 1.26 1.37 ** 1.25 1.50
History of sibling’s death
No ®                 
Yes 2.35 ** 2.24 2.47 2.51 ** 2.22 2.85 2.03 ** 1.88 2.20 2.13 ** 1.92 2.38
Constant 0.01 ** 0.01 0.01 0.01 ** 0.01 0.02 0.02 ** 0.01 0.03 0.01 ** 0.01 0.02
\(/ln(p)\) -1.56 ** -1.57 -1.54 -1.55 ** -1.60 -1.51 -1.56 ** -1.59 -1.53 -1.60 ** -1.64 -1.57
\(/ln(\theta )\) -2.45 ** -2.92 -1.98 -5.27 ** -7.19 -3.36 -4.74 ** -6.09 -3.39 -3.60 ** -5.44 -1.75
LR Test for theta = 0 387.02 **    2.85 *    33.91 **    5.76 **   
  Northeast   West   South
HR   95% CI   HR   95% CI   HR   95% CI
Maternal characteristics
Age at first birth (in years)
Less than 18 1.01   0.84 1.20   1.17   0.85 1.60   0.98   0.73 1.31
19 to 24 0.90   0.76 1.06   0.98   0.73 1.30   1.01   0.78 1.28
25 to 29 ®               
30 and above 0.84   0.62 1.14   1.26   0.75 2.14   1.08   0.67 1.76
Level of schooling
No schooling ®               
Primary 1.00   0.85 1.18   1.17   0.88 1.55   1.02   0.78 1.34
Secondary 0.94   0.80 1.10   0.98   0.76 1.27   0.74 * 0.58 0.93
Higher 0.74   0.51 1.06   0.82   0.51 1.30   0.41 ** 0.27 0.61
Marital status
Currently married ®               
Not currently married 1.09   0.83 1.44   1.84 * 1.13 3.00   1.99 ** 1.31 3.02
Wealth index   
Poorest ®               
Poorer 1.00   0.86 1.16   1.28   0.96 1.69   0.89   0.65 1.21
Middle 0.93   0.77 1.12   0.83   0.60 1.14   0.89   0.65 1.21
Richer 0.75 * 0.58 0.96   0.80   0.56 1.14   0.70 * 0.50 0.99
Richest 0.89   0.64 1.24   0.76   0.50 1.16   0.47 ** 0.30 0.72
Religion               
Hindu ®               
Muslim 1.16   0.96 1.40   0.99   0.73 1.33   0.84   0.64 1.10
Christian 0.82   0.65 1.03   0.51   0.16 1.61   0.51 ** 0.31 0.84
Others 0.62 ** 0.46 0.85   0.84   0.51 1.36   1.06   0.15 7.61
Caste
Scheduled Caste ®               
Scheduled Tribe 1.01   0.77 1.33   0.77   0.56 1.06   1.02   0.75 1.38
Others 0.84   0.65 1.09   0.87   0.66 1.16   0.96   0.79 1.16
Child characteristics
Sex
Male ®               
Female 0.79 ** 0.70 0.88   0.72 ** 0.60 0.86   0.77 ** 0.65 0.90
Type of birth
Singleton birth ®               
Multiple birth 3.22 ** 2.44 4.25   4.85 ** 3.34 7.04   2.20 ** 1.45 3.36
Birth order
1 ®               
2 1.13   0.60 2.14   0.86   0.41 1.77   1.99 * 1.03 3.84
3 to 4 1.17   0.60 2.26   0.76   0.34 1.68   1.66   0.82 3.37
5 and above 1.21   0.62 2.36   1.02   0.44 2.41   2.16   0.95 4.90
Birthsize               
Less than average 2.19 ** 1.93 2.49   2.49 ** 2.02 3.08   3.73 ** 3.08 4.52
Average ®               
Above average 1.21 * 1.02 1.42   1.27 * 1.02 1.58   1.01   0.82 1.25
Previous birth interval
First-order birth 1.66   0.86 3.21   2.08   0.94 4.62   3.55 ** 1.71 7.36
Less than 12 months 2.54 ** 1.72 3.75   3.30 ** 1.79 6.07   4.46 ** 2.67 7.45
12 to 23 months 1.37 ** 1.11 1.69   1.63 * 1.12 2.39   1.44   0.98 2.11
24 to 35 months 0.89   0.72 1.11   0.84   0.56 1.26   1.19   0.81 1.74
36 to 47 months ®               
48 to 59 months 0.97   0.73 1.28   0.73   0.39 1.35   1.25   0.76 2.08
60 to 85 months 1.06   0.81 1.38   1.50   0.89 2.55   1.10   0.65 1.86
86 months and above 1.38 * 1.04 1.84   2.24 ** 1.29 3.86   2.64 ** 1.67 4.16
Mode of delivery
Non-Caesarean ®               
Caesarean 0.74 * 0.58 0.94   0.85   0.65 1.11   0.92   0.76 1.10
Assistance during delivery
Skilled personnel ®               
Unskilled personnel 1.05   0.91 1.20   1.50 ** 1.19 1.89   1.41 * 1.06 1.86
History of sibling's death
No ®               
Yes 3.16 ** 2.74 3.65   3.82 ** 2.99 4.87   3.50 ** 2.76 4.43
Constant 0.01 ** 0.00 0.02   0.01 ** 0.00 0.02   0.01 ** 0.00 0.02
\(/ln(p)\) -1.44 ** -1.49 -1.39   -1.60 ** -1.68 -1.52   -1.55 ** -1.62 -1.47
\(/ln(\theta )\) -2.56 ** -3.57 -1.54   -4.56 ** -6.85 -2.28   -4.25   -8.98 0.48
LR test for theta = 0 37.54 **     2.83 *     0.29    
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; LR, log-likelihood ratio test; **p-values < 0.01 and * 0.01 < p-values < 0.05
  2. Not currently married includes widowed, separated and divorced; skilled personnel includes doctors, nurses, auxiliary nurse midwives, midwives, and lady health visitors