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Table 5 Hazard ratios of under-five mortality by previous birth interval according to mother’s age at first birth in India

From: The effects of community clustering on under-five mortality in India: a parametric shared frailty modelling approach

  Less than and equal 18 years     19 to 24 years      25 to 29 years     30 years and above   
  HRa   95% CI   HRa   95% CI   HRa 95% CI HRa 95% CI HRa   95% CI  
Previous Birth Interval                 
First-order birth 2.72 ** 1.69 4.37 2.34 ** 1.84 2.96 2.49 ** 1.35 4.60 2.86 * 1.04 7.86
Less than 12 months 4.36 ** 3.54 5.36 3.32 ** 2.85 3.88 2.45 ** 1.59 3.78 2.16   0.78 6.01
12 to 23 months 1.74 ** 1.51 2.01 1.76 ** 1.59 1.95 1.81 ** 1.39 2.35 1.87 * 1.03 3.38
24 to 35 months 1.15   0.99 1.32 1.12 * 1.01 1.25 1.21   0.92 1.58 1.43   0.78 2.62
36 to 47 months ®                 
48 to 59 months 0.90   0.73 1.11 1.04   0.90 1.21 1.29   0.91 1.81 0.75   0.29 1.94
60 to 85 months 1.08   0.88 1.33 1.17 * 1.01 1.36 1.49 * 1.06 2.09 1.97   0.94 4.16
86 months and above 1.91 ** 1.56 2.34 1.59 ** 1.33 1.89 2.20 ** 1.50 3.22 1.39   0.50 3.88
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; **p-values < 0.01 and * 0.01 < p-values < 0.05
  2. a Adjusted for maternal characteristics viz. level of schooling, marital status, wealth status, religion, caste and child characteristics viz. sex, type of birth, birth order, birthsize, mode of delivery, assistance during delivery, and history of sibling’s death