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Journal of Population Sciences

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Table 3 Simultaneous hazard model for the first and the second childbirth including the interaction between country and education (ref. medium level). Parameter estimates, significance values and standard errors

From: The nexus between education and fertility in six European countries

  First child Second child
  β sig. se β sig. se
Bulgaria
 Low 0.54 *** (0.048) 0.62 *** (0.064)
 Medium (ref.) 0    0   
 High education − 0.34 *** (0.051) − 0.42 *** (0.070)
Czech. Rep.
 Low 0.19 ** (0.096) 0.27 ** (0.128)
 Medium (ref.) 0    0   
 High education − 0.43 *** (0.120) 0.13   (0.138)
France       
 Low 0.21 *** (0.062) 0.13 * (0.074)
 Medium (ref.) 0    0   
 High education − 0.23 *** (0.068) 0.29 *** (0.076)
Germany
 Low 0.52 *** (0.115) 0.24   (0.152)
 Medium (ref.) 0    0   
 High education − 0.10   (0.098) 0.16   (0.096)
Italy
 Low 0.47 *** (0.035) 0.08 ** (0.040)
 Medium (ref.) 0    0   
 High education − 0.23 *** (0.053) 0.15 *** (0.055)
Poland
 Low 0.03   (0.048) 0.40 *** (0.051)
 Medium (ref.) 0    0   
 High education − 0.44 *** (0.071) − 0.44 *** (0.080)
  1. Other variables included in the model: birth cohort, currently studying, currently working, mother’s age at first childbirth (only for second child). Source: GGS 2nd wave and Istat FSS (2009)
  2. Note: *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01